1.2 An Overview of Sampling STAT 506 - Sampling Theory and Methods

# 1.2 An Overview of Sampling STAT 506 - Sampling Theory and Methods

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STAT 506 - Sampling Theory and Methods ANGEL Department of Statistics Eberly College of Science Home // Lesson 1: Introduction; Estimating Population Mean and Total under Simple Random Sampling 1.2 An Overview of Sampling Submitted by gfj100 on Mon, 11/30/2009 - 16:54 Unit Summary An overview of sampling Probability sampling versus quota sampling The basic idea of sampling Sampling error Non-sampling error Why do we take samples? You want to understand certain things and have some objective in mind. In each case there is a target population. The goal for many research projects is to know more about your objective, i.e., your population. This is what you are interested in. For instance, if you were a conservation officer you might be interested in the number of deer in central Pennsylvania. In this case, you have a certain goal in mind. What steps can we take to understand the population better? What we can do is to take a sample. However, the difficulty and the one major objective in statistics that now arises is inference . One important objective of statistics is to make inferences about a population from the information contained in a sample. We should always keep in mind that we perform sampling because we want to make this inference. Because of this inference we begin to talk about things like confidence intervals and hypothesis testing. A good picture to represent this situation follows:

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We can draw a sample from the population. How do we do this? What type of scheme do we use to draw a sample? This is very important since the inferences that can be made will strongly depend upon how you do the sampling. Examples of Sampling Sampling is useful in many different fields, however, different sampling problems can arise in each of these areas. Economic: We might want to estimate the average household incomes in Centre County. This would be
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## This note was uploaded on 09/10/2010 for the course STAT 506 at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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1.2 An Overview of Sampling STAT 506 - Sampling Theory and Methods

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