1412 Lecture 4 Ch 15

1412 Lecture 4 Ch 15 - Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Acids...

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Unformatted text preview: Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain citric acid. React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas. React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas 2HCl ( aq ) + Mg ( s ) MgCl 2 ( aq ) + H 2 ( g ) 2HCl ( aq ) + CaCO 3 ( s ) CaCl 2 ( aq ) + CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O ( l ) Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity. Have a bitter taste. Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases. Bases Cause color changes in plant dyes. Aqueous base solutions conduct electricity. Pg 129 Common Household acids and bases. Types of Chemical Reactions The Arrhenius Concept Acid-Base Reactions The Arrhenius concept defines acids as substances that produce hydrogen ions, H + , when dissolved in water. An example is nitric acid, HNO 3 , a molecular substance that dissolves in water to give H + and NO 3- . ) aq ( NO ) aq ( H ) aq ( HNO 3 O H 3 2- + + Types of Chemical Reactions Acid-Base Reactions The Arrhenius concept defines bases as substances that produce hydroxide ions, OH- , when dissolved in water. An example is sodium hydroxide, NaOH, an ionic substance that dissolves in water to give sodium ions and hydroxide ions. The Arrhenius Concept ) aq ( OH ) aq ( Na ) s ( NaOH O H 2- + + Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) in water Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH- in water Hydronium ion , hydrated proton, H 3 O + Types of Chemical Reactions Acid-Base Reactions The Brnsted- Lowry concept of acids and bases involves the transfer of a proton (H + ) from the acid to the base. In this view, acid-base reactions are proton-transfer reactions. The Brnsted-Lowry Concept A Brnsted acid is a proton donor A Brnsted base is a proton acceptor acid base acid base A Brnsted acid must contain at least one ionizable proton! Types of Chemical Reactions Acid-Base Reactions The Brnsted- Lowry concept defines an acid as the species (molecule or ion) that donates a proton (H + ) to another species in a proton-transfer reaction. A base is defined as the species (molecule or ion) that accepts the proton (H + ) in a proton-transfer reaction. The Brnsted-Lowry Concept Types of Chemical Reactions Acid-Base Reactions the H 2 O molecule is the acid because it donates a proton. The NH 3 molecule is a base, because it accepts a proton. ) aq ( OH ) aq ( NH ) l ( O H ) aq ( NH 4 2 3- + + + H + In the reaction of ammonia with water, The Brnsted-Lowry Concept Types of Chemical Reactions Acid-Base Reactions This mode of transportation for the H + ion is called the hydronium ion . ) aq ( O H ) l ( O H ) aq ( H 3 2 + + + The H + (aq) ion associates itself with water to form H 3 O + (aq) ....
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1412 Lecture 4 Ch 15 - Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Acids...

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