OTC-19953-MS-P - OTC 19953 Santos Basin’s Pre-Salt...

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Unformatted text preview: OTC 19953 Santos Basin’s Pre-Salt Reservoirs Development—The Way Ahead José Miranda Formigli Filho, Antônio Carlos Capeleiro Pinto, and Alberto Sampaio de Almeida, SPE, Petrobras Copyright 2009, Offshore Technology Conference This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2009 Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 4–7 May 2009. This paper was selected for presentation by an OTC program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Offshore Technology Conference, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Offshore Technology Conference is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of OTC copyright. ABSTRACT This paper describes the current studies for the future development of the Pre-Salt reservoirs operated by Petrobras in the so called Santos Basin Pre-salt Cluster, offshore Brazil, in deepwater. The development of the whole area was divided in three phases: • • • Dynamic Information Gathering Phase, composed of Extended Well Tests (EWTs) and Production Pilots. The EWTs will be implemented in parallel with the exploratory appraisal campaign and intends to evaluate the long term production behavior of the wells and the reservoir, as well as the fluid lift and flow assurance. The Pilot Projects, to be implemented after the EWTs in some areas, as in Tupi, will anticipate production and injection (water and/or gas+CO2) information, resulting in a better understanding of the secondary recovery mechanisms and reducing the risks of the future development systems Phase 1, extending to 2017, will comprise conventional subsea completion systems and, wherever possible, standardization of the FPSO hulls and respective topside equipment, as usually done with the wells and subsea equipment applied in the development projects. In this phase many uncertainties will be still present, and the production systems will be planned to provide flexibility for different reservoir drainage solutions. Phase 2, which will consider non-conventional solutions, starting no later than 2017. Some of the concepts under evaluation by Petrobras are: the use of dry completion units; gas processing hubs; floating liquefied natural gas; digital field management; oil transportation through pipelines; gas storage in caves in the salt layer; EOR in selected areas considering the CO2 captured from the associated gas of neighboring areas, among others. One of the most important issues to support the development plans is logistics. In the remote Pre-Salt cluster, all areas related to the production will also have to be planned in advance, such as: hiring and training new employees, construction of onshore basis, transportation schemes (boats, helicopters), oil transportation and refining strategy, gas transference and commercialization strategies and other topics. Regarding the supply of the long lead items, it comprises the acquisition or leasing strategy of the critical production systems such as rigs, floating production units, pipeline laying vessels, flexible and rigid pipelines, X-mas trees, among others. INTRODUCTION The area known as the Pre-Salt Cluster, in the Santos Basin, is located in ultra deep waters, between 1,900 and 2,400 m, approximately 290 km offshore the Rio de Janeiro Coast, Southeast Brazil. Figure 1 shows the main blocks of the Pre-Salt cluster, currently in the Appraisal Plan Phase. The structure was created around 160 millions years ago, when the supercontinent Gondwana began to break apart, giving place for the South American and African continents. The rift phase created the conditions for the deposition of sediments on the trough between the two continents. The rift phase created the conditions for the deposition of sediments on the trough between the two continents. As the separation continued, the sea water began to fill the space, creating a low energy and high salinity environment, propitious to the growth of special bacterial colonia, such as the stromatolites. The secretion of these microorganisms, together with the precipitation of carbonate salts, created nucleus to form carbonate rocks, known as microbialites, where the oil in the Pre-Salt was discovered. Later on, due to the severe climate change on Earth, the salt dissolved in the sea water in this low energy environment precipitated, forming a thick salt layer that became a perfect seal for the hydrocarbon that migrated to the microbialites. 2 OTC 19953 In the beginning of the current century the “cluster blocks” in the Santos Basin were considered one of the most important exploratory frontiers of the Brazilian Continental Shelf, given the size of the structures and the perfect seal created by the salt layer. In 2002, as the operator of different consortia, Petrobras obtained, through a bid process, the concession to explorate several blocks in the Santos Basin area. The first location, known as Parati (RJS-617) was approved in March, 2004. At that time, just two wells had been drilled in the proximal portion of the Basin, having crossed thick intervals of the Pre-Salt section. The existence of source rocks with similar characteristics of those found in the Campos Basin was speculated through geochemical correlations, but there was significant uncertainty regarding the maturation, migration and volumes that could have been generated and trapped. Despite of these uncertainties, the most important risks associated to the locations were related to the existence and quality of the reservoirs. The Parati location intended to test the stratigraphic traps in multiple objectives in the post-salt section and, additionally, to test a domic structure in the Pre-Salt. The sandstone reservoirs above the salt were found with water, and the decision was to go ahead with the well. After drilling 500 m of basalt, with several operational problems, the well drilling stopped at 7,600 m TVDSS. Gas condensate was found in reservoirs of the Pre-Salt, confirming the presence of a petroleum system in the area, stimulating the drilling of the following location for the Pre-Salt, RJS-628, which resulted in the Tupi discovery (Ref. 1). 29 290 km 13 3 PMXL km BM-S-42 166 km m m 2k 22 21 6 km BM-S-42 BM-S-11 (IARA) Cluster BM-S-10 (PARATI) BM-S-11 (TUPI) BM-S-24 (JÚPITER) BM-S-9 BM-S-8 BM-S-9 (BEM-TE-VI) (CARIOCA) (GUARÁ) BM-S-21 BM-S-21 (CARAMBA) BM-S-22 (OGUM) BM-S-17 Figure 1 - Pre-Salt Cluster Areas The blocks were bided by different consortia, and Petrobras is the operator, with major work interests in the eight areas shown in Table 1. The block BM-S-22 is operated by Exxon and Petrobras has a 20% share. Block BM-S-8 BM-S-9 BM-S-9 BM-S-10 BM-S-11 BM-S-11 BM-S-21 BM-S-24 Area SPS-52, or Bem-Te-Vi SPS-50, or Carioca SPS-55, or Guará RJS-617, or Parati RJS-628A, or Tupi RJS-656, or Iara SPS-51, or Caramba RJS-652A, or Júpiter Consortium Petrobras (66%), Shell (20%), Galp (14%) Petrobras (45%), BG (30%), Repsol (25%) Petrobras (45%), BG (30%), Repsol (25%) Petrobras (45%), BG (25%), Partex (10%) Petrobras (65%), BG (25%), Galp (10%) Petrobras (65%), BG (25%), Galp (10%) Petrobras (80%), Galp (20%) Petrobras (80%), Galp (20%) Table 1 – Pre-Salt Areas and Evaluation Plans End of the Evaluation Plan December, 2012 (*) November, 2011 December, 2012 April, 2012 December, 2010 December, 2013 December, 2012 Under negotiation with the Government Agency (ANP) OTC 19953 3 Hydrocarbon was discovered in all of the above areas, including BM-S-22, where a recent announcement of an oil show was made. The discoveries made possible for Petrobras to request a period for the Evaluation Plan (or Appraisal Plan) for the areas depicted in Table 1. To award the evaluation plan, some commitments are usually required by the Brazilian Petroleum Government Agency, such as: new seismic acquisition, drilling of extension wells and Extended Well Tests (EWTs). Five wells have been tested (cased well tests) in the Pre-Salt Area: • • • • • In July, 2006, the RJS-617 well, known as the Parati Lead, in BM-S-10, was tested in an inter-trap siliciclastic reservoir, into a basalt formation, at approximately 6800 m TVDSS. The well produced condensate gas with a GOR around 3,000 m3/m3 and a 44o API condensate. In September, 2006, the RJS-628A well, known as the Tupi Lead, in BM-S-11, was tested and flowed a 28o API oil, with GOR of 240 m3/m3, from a carbonate reservoir of microbial origin (microbialite reservoir), known as the SAG reservoir. The reservoir occurs just below a thick salt column, of about 2,000 m. The initial pressure is 560 kgf/cm2 @ 4895 m TVDSS. The oil has a low acidity and contains between 8 and 12% (molar fraction) of CO2 in the dissolved gas. In July, 2007 the extension well, RJS-646, or Tupi Sul lead, located 10 Km South of the discovery well, in BM-S-11, was also tested. The new well confirmed the SAG reservoir, with similar oil and even better reservoir characteristics than those found in RJS-628. The well also revealed a secondary reservoir with oil, the microbialites of the RIFT sequence. In April, 2007, the SPS-50 well, or Carioca lead, in BM-S-9, found a thick oil column in the SAG microbialites. It was obtained a good productivity in the well test, with a 27o API oil and GOR about 170 m3/m3. The oil properties vary with depth due to the compositional grading, as well as the CO2 amount, which was a little bit higher than in Tupi. In January, 2008, the wildcat SPS-52A, or Bem-Te-Vi lead, in BM-S-8, found oil in the SAG microbialites at about 6,000 m TVDSS. The well was tested and produced a 24o API oil, with a GOR about 80 m3/m3, with a low CO2 amount. The areas of the blocks add up close to 15,000 Km2. To give an idea of the extension of this area, the most prolific basin in Brazil, the Campos Basin, offshore Rio de Janeiro, fits completely within the Santos Basin Pre-Salt cluster. Just the Tupi Appraisal area has a size of almost 2,000 km2. Considering that one of the giant fields in deepwater in Campos Basin, the Marlim Field, has an area of 150 km2 and was developed with 7 Production Units, a direct relationship, considering the area, would indicate that about 90 Production Units would be necessary to develop Tupi. Considering the direct relationship of the recoverable volumes, comparing Tupi with Marlim, a number between 15 and 25 Production Units would be necessary for the Tupi development. If the same relationship is made for the number of development wells, once Marlim was developed with about 130 wells, more than 2,000 wells would be required to develop Tupi. The use of the same development concepts of Campos Basin would result in non-economic projects, given the unique characteristics of the Tupi area (ultradeep water, remote location, deep reservoirs, contaminants in the producing fluids, high GOR, and so on). Consequently several challenges (technical, logistics and economical) are associated to the Pre-Salt development. Currently, the appraisal plans (APs) are ongoing in the aforementioned areas. Appraisal wells are being drilled and a high resolution seismic is being shot in some of the areas. The strategy for the development of Pre-salt Cluster in the Santos Basin The strategy for the development of each area in the Pre-Salt cluster follows the successful strategy applied by Petrobras in the development of most of its deepwater fields, that is, a phased development (Ref. 2): a) Extended Well Test (EWT), to evaluate the long term production behavior of the wells; b) Production Pilot, to test the performance of secondary recovery methods c) Definitive Systems, incorporating the knowledge acquired through the previous phases. The phased development aims to progressively reduce the risks, to optimize the Production Systems and also to balance the expenditures with revenues. Naturally, as the knowledge and confidence in the production behavior increases, less value will be associated to the EWTs and Pilots, and they could progressively be suppressed. The Pre-Salt development was so divided in three phases, described below: • Phase 0 – Information Acquisition 4 OTC 19953 • • Phase 1A – Definitive Development with mostly Conventional Solutions Phase 1B – Definitive Development with Non Conventional Solutions in a large scale Phase 0 – Information Acquisition The objectives of this phase are: • • • • • • • • Exploratory delimitation of the blocks, with the drilling of appraisal wells Reservoir characterization, through: - New information from the appraisal wells (logs and sidewall samples) - Reservoir coring and description - Openhole fluid sampling - High resolution seismic acquisition and interpretation - Cased hole well test - Core – log – seismic correlations Evaluation of different well geometries Test of different well stimulation techniques Evaluation of the performance of the flow in the reservoir: primary depletion / secondary recovery. Material analysis for the wellbore, subsea pipes and processing plants, considering the presence of contaminants (CO2, H2S) Evaluation of the behavior of the oil flow in long subsea pipes, in low temperature (flow assurance) Evaluation of the performance of the flowlines and risers’ systems, operating in deepwater, high pressure and transporting fluids with contaminants. The following actions are considered in this phase: • The appraisal of the aforementioned areas, which comprise, in average, the intention to drill 37 appraisal wells till 2012, being 22 of these a commitment with the Government Agency (ANP). Some of the wells will be cored to help the reservoir description and geological modeling. Selected wells will also be completed with special material, allowing them to be used in subsequent EWTs or Production Pilots. • The deployment of an EWT in the Tupi area, to start in April, 2009. The test is intended to evaluate, within a total period up to 15 months (production time), the SAG and RIFT reservoirs, collecting data to optimize the Pilot Project and the Definitive Systems. The optimization will comprise the distribution and geometry of wells, type of well completions and the materials to be specified for the wellbores, flowlines and risers. The dynamic behavior will also provide valuable information about the vertical and lateral communication along the reservoir, which is a basic data to define the drainage scheme. The Tupi EWT considers the sequential production of two wells to a turret-moored FPSO named BW Cidade de São Vicente: the first one will be the exploratory well RJS-646 and the second one will be a new well, named P1. The current plans are to connect the wells sequentially, 6 months each, through a flexible flowline and riser in free catenary to the FPSO. In the remaining 3 months, some special tests are planned, depending on the results of the behavior of the previous tests. The Unit will be equipped with production facilities with capacity to process and treat 30,000 bbl /d of oil and store 350,000 bbl. However, the production will be constrained by the gas rate allowed to be flared by ANP. The current expectation is to produce an average of 14,000 bbl/day. • The deployment, till 2015, of a number of EWTs in the different blocks. Out of these, 7 are part of the Appraisal Plan Commitment, to be implemented till 2012 (Tupi EWT included). Two vessels will be available for the EWTs: one is the BW Cidade de Sao Vicente, already mentioned. The other will be a dynamic positioning vessel, with similar processing characteristics, already under construction. • The deployment, starting in late 2010, of a Production Pilot in the Tupi Area, as shown in the Figure 2. The Pilot will be a larger system, comprising the connection of eight wells: five oil producers, two water injectors and one gas injector. One water injector and the gas injector will be used to test the water-alternating gas recovery method. The Pilot will be located in the Tupi Sul area. The wells will be connected to a spread moored FPSO, named Cidade de Angra dos Reis, to be positioned in a water depth of 2,146 m. The Unit will be able to process 100,000 bbl/d of oil, 4 million m3/d of gas, inject up to 3 million m3/d of gas and 100,000 bbl/d of water. The CO2 produced with the associated gas will be separated and reinjected in the reservoir. The gas will be exported to the Mexilhao platform, as shown in Figure 3. From Mexilhao the gas will follow to the Gas Plant, in Caraguatatuba City, Sao Paulo state. OTC 19953 5 PILOT 5 producers; 2 water injectors; 1 gas injector. WAG can be tested. Spread Mooring FPSO First Oil: Dec/10. CO2 captured and sequestered in the reservoir. Gas exported to Mexilhão. Capacities: 100 k bopd and 4 M m3/dia (gas) Investigate the recovery mechanisms and well geometries LEGEND PIPELINE WATER N OIL GAS INJECTION Reservoir Reservoir Figure 2 – Pilot FPSO Figure 3 – Pilot Gas Export Scheme Phase 1A – Definitive Development with mostly Conventional Solutions This phase will last from late 2012 to 2017, and will comprise: 6 OTC 19953 a) The deployment of two anticipated Pilot Systems, named Pilots 02 and 03. The location of these Pilots is still under studies, but the current intention is to install one in the BM-S-9 Area (Guará) and the other in the BM-S-11 Area (Iara). The first oil date is still under studies and the current plans consider one FPSO in 2013 and the other in 2014. b) The deployment of a certain number of standardized FPSOs, in different blocks. The deployment of these FPSOs is planned to occur from 2015 to 2017. In this phase, several important uncertainties regarding the reservoir quality and long term behavior will still be present. A careful selection of the FPSOs’ locations will be mandatory: based on the understanding of the depositional environment and also on the seismic attributes, the less risky locations in the cluster will be selected to receive the FPSOs. Naturally the technical-economical evaluation for the projects will take into account the uncertainties, and it may occurr a significant variability in the recoverable volumes estimates and in the NPVs. The objectives of this phase are to get more information and overcome several challenges, such as: • To evaluate the behavior, in different Pre-Salt locations, of different recovery methods, such as: waterflood, gasflood and Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG). In the WAG process, the gas can be a hydrocarbon gas, from the producing reservoir, or CO2, captured from several neighboring areas and concentrated in specific locations. • To test the gas processing plant and the topside installation, considering the significant CO2 content in the cluster areas. • To test new well designs, including subhorizontal wells, multi-fractured wells, multi-lateral wells and openhole completed wells. The drilling of deviated or subhorizontal wells in the cluster area is a major challenge, mainly due to the existence of a thick salt layer (up to 2,000 m) above the reservoir. • To test the Extended Reach Well technology, required for Dry Completion concepts and for subsea systems, if the wells are to be drilled in clusters. • To evaluate the behavior of the subsea systems, getting information about: • The maximum well distance from the Production Unit, due to flow assurance issues, for the different oils • The performance of different materials for wells and submarine systems, considering the presence of contaminants in the produced fluids • The behavior of the FPSOs’ mooring systems • The performance of the flexible and rigid pipes, including the installation process, which will indicate the best solution for the remaining Units. • The performance of coupled systems to the FPSO, considering catenary risers and rigid pipes connected in lazy wave • To test new technologies, provided that they do not interfere in the achievement of the internal production goal established for 2017 of, at least, 1 million bbl/d of total production of oil from the blocks operated by Petrobras in the area. • To test new solutions of logistics, to optimize the cluster development. The preliminary plans consider the following generic specification for the FPSOs of Phase 1A: • • • • • • • • • • Oil processing capacity: 120 k bopd Gas processing capacity: 5,0 M m3/d Gas injection capacity: 4,5 M m3/d (CO2 included) Water injection capacity: 180 k bopd Water processing / disposal capacity: 150 k bwpd Maximum CO2 amount produced in the gas phase, along the project lifetime: 50% Gas export capacity: 4,0 M m3/d Gas lift capacity: 2,0 M m3/d Sulfate Removal Unit for the seawater injection CO2 capture and reinjection in the producing reservoir The oil production capacity of the Production Units in the Pre-Salt is limited by the deck space in a VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier), which is the common type of hull employed to build FPSOs. The main impact in the area requirement is caused by the gas plant: the gas rate to be treated and processed is high, due to the high GOR (250 m3/m3 is the average in the main areas). The gas processing is not straightforward, since it comprises several services, such as: H2S and CO2 removal, dewatering, gas export, gas lift, gas injection in the reservoir and CO2 injection in the reservoir, pure or in the HC gas current. The requirement to injected desulfated seawater to maintain pressure, considering a waterflood system or a WAG system, also contributes to increase the demand for space in the deck of the Production Unit. Regarding the well number for each “typical” FPSO, the preliminary plans are: • 20 firm wells: • 10 oil producers, OTC 19953 • • 7 • 10 water / gas injectors (alternatively) Spare wells: • 2 oil producers, • 1 production manifold for 3 wells, • 1 water / gas injection manifold Other: • 1 gas pipeline to import gas. • 1 gas pipeline to export gas. • 1 oil pipeline for exportation. The above specification for the “typical” FPSO Plant is very preliminary. Different development concepts – and consequently processing plant specs – are being analysed. The results to be obtained with the Tupi EWT and with the new exploratory wells along 2009 may change the preliminary base case definition for Phase 1A. Phase 1B- Definitive Development with Non Conventional Solutions in a large scale In this phase the intention is to deploy several non conventional solutions, in a large scale, to complete the development of the Pre-Salt cluster aiming cost reduction and production and recovery optimization Among the technological innovations forecasted for this phase, the following can be depicted: 1. Production Systems: • Dry Completion Units (TLPs, SPARs, FPDSOs, …) • New operation concepts – focus on automation and remote control – Digital Field Concept will probably be applied in all Units • Significant reduction of the people on board to operate the Units • New concepts for logistics. • Extended Reach Wells, necessary to make feasible the deployment of Dry Completion Systems; • CO2 capture and reinjection for Enhanced Oil Recovery; • Recovery methods: WAG with HC gas and WAG with CO2. • New concepts for subsea systems (subsea processing, raw water injection, among others) • Hubs for gas processing, injection and export; • Floating Liquefied Natural Gas Units (FLNGs); Dry Completion Units The deployment of DCUs in the cluster area should consider the following aspects: Pros Better thermal insulation from the well head to the platform – better flow assurance Wells can operate with a higher GOR, since the wax deposition and hydrate deposition’s envelopes are smaller. That can mean a longer producing life for the wells, mainly if gas injection or WAG mechanisms are considered. Workover rig always available in the Production unit (Direct Well Access). Fast workover in wells, to restore the production. Lower rig daily rate Reduced CAPEX with the flowlines Recovery Factor increase due to the possibility of an active reservoir management Cons Need to access the production tubing through the well’s annular to mitigate eventual hydrate problems during shut-down. Need of Extended Reach Wells – at least 5 km. Multiphase flow between the DCU to the FPSO, where the processing plant would be. Slower well drilling and pull-in (all wells must be drilled and completed from the unit rig), causing a slower production ramp-up. Higher OPEX, due to the need of two Units. Table 2 – Pros and Cons of a Dry Completion System for the Pre-Salt Cluster 8 OTC 19953 Floating LNG Regarding the gas export, although part of the gas is planned to be reinjected in the reservoir to enhance the oil recovery, it is expected that a significant amount is available for marketing. Due to the remote location of the Santos Basin Pre-Salt blocks, the FLNG became a potential alternative to export the produced gas. To plan its possible deployment, the following topics should be considered: • Increasing gas demand (environmental reasons) • Distance of the gas production area to the consumers • Engineering and EPC companies are in the learning curve for FLNG Units • The lack of competition and qualified work force can lead to high costs • Search for other liquefaction processes to mitigate escalating costs • More competitive opportunities to procure LNG cargoes • Integration on the LNG chain is necessary CO2 capture and sequestration Petrobras, as a commitment to reduce green house gas emission, decided to consider not to vent the CO2 produced with the associated gas. Therefore, the CO2 will be captured in the gas processing plant and geologically stored. The capture is planned to be done with membranes’ technology, which is suitable for high CO2 content. The resulting CO2 current will carry about 10 to 20% of methane and also the residual H2S that comes from the fixed bed H2S removal system. The residual CO2 amount in the export gas is about 5% in the Tupi Pilot. In the Tupi Pilot the gas will be exported to the Mexilhao fixed platform (located in shallow waters, 220 km from the Tupi FPSO). In Mexilhao the Tupi gas will be mixed with gas from other fields and the resulting current, to be exported to the Caraguatatuba Gas Treatment Plant, will contain about 2% of CO2. For the remaining Prooduction Units (Phase 1A and 1B), ongoing studies evaluate the reduction of the CO2 amount in the export gas to 2-3%. Several options are being considered for the CO2 sequestration in the Santos Basin Pre-Salt cluster: • Reinjection in the reservoir for EOR purposes • Injection in saline aquifers • Injection in depleted gas reservoirs • Injection in caves to be built in the salt layer Currently, the preferred option is to reinject the CO2 in the reservoir, pure or with the produced gas current. At least for the Tupi oil, this solution will result in a miscible displacement, which will lead to a higher ultimate recovery factor compared to waterflood. It is also being studied the capture of the CO2 from several areas in the Santos Basin Pre-Salt blocks to inject in one or two selected areas. The Logistics challenges in the Pre-salt The Pre-salt block of Santos Basin is composed by the remaining area of the blocks: BMS-8, BMS-9, BMS-10, BMS-11, BMS-21, BMS-22 and BMS-24. It is located around 290 Km distant from Rio de Janeiro coast and 350 Km from São Paulo coast, in ultra deep water depths varying between 1,900 and 2,400 meters as shown in Figure 1. This environmental scenario imposes logistics challenges for the development of the pre-salt cluster, such as: • • • • • • • Load transport Material supply People transport (helicopters, boats) Pipeline laying vessels’ availability Drilling & workover rigs’ availability Rigorous schedule planning, to avoid loss of equipment time Terminals for oil export through commercial crude carriers OTC 19953 9 The ongoing studies comprises: • Selection of existing harbours to be adapted • Selection of existing airports to be adapted • Design of offshore oil terminals, in deep and in shallow waters • Design of hubs, for diesel, brine and drilling fluids supply, located halfway from the coast to the cluster area • Design of an auxiliary location for helicopter refuel / maintenance and people gathering for embarking / disembarking. It is important to mention that long time before the first oil of the projects, there will be an intense activiy of offshore drilling units and supply boats involved in the exploration and production development projects. In short time, the units will be attended by the Briclog harbour, in Rio de Jeneiro, and, eventually, by the Imbetiba harbour, in Macaé City. The Jacarepagua airport, in Rio de Janeiro and Itanhaém airport, in São Paulo will also be used. Ongoing studies will propose the most adequate solution to support the exploratory and production activites for the Pre-Salt blocks in the Santos Basin. Opportunities created by the Pre-Salt Development The production development of the Santos Basin Pre-Salt blocks will create an extraordinary potential for the petroleum industry and, specially, for the Brazilian development, since it will be necessary: to develop subsurface studies; to drill and complete wells; to install subsea equipment; to lay down subsea pipelines; to construct and operate production units; to guarantee the flow of oil and gas. In the effort to attend all these demands, several opportunities will be generated. In the naval industry, for instance, the opportunities will include: the construction of several floating production units; construction of offshore drilling rigs; construction of supply boats; inspection and maintenance services for the fleet. For the equipment industry, the opportunities will include the construction of : salvage equipments, load transportation equipments, compressors, turbines, pressure vases, special valves, equipments with special metalurgy to support high pressures and agressive environments. For the service industry the opportunities will be enormous, not only due to the increasing demand for specialized services – drilling and completion offshore services, project and construction of oil and gas process units, handling of subsea equipments, subsea inspection services, project management – but also due to the logistics demands, such as: different ways of transportation, load handling and transportation, facilities and supply technologies, management and technology for material stock. Special attention will have to be given to the formation and training of specialized human resources. Some examples of initiatives that confirm the opportunities that the Pre-salt development can give to the oil industry include: • • • • • • People training to operate rigs, vessels and Production Units. More than 110 million dollars are forecasted to be invested in Human Resources, through the PROMINP Program (a Governmental Program to develop the Brazilian petroleum industry). Creation of new jobs for geologists, engineers, chemists, biologists, accountants, lawyers, and other graduated professionals. Knowledge generation in Brazil, through the cooperation of the oil companies with Brazilian Universities, R&D Centers and the International Technical Communities. Development of innovative solutions for Production Units specially designed for the Pre-Salt environment. Construction of new shipyards in Brazil or modernization of existing ones. Development of the heavy industry in Brazil, particularly: o o o Increase in the production capacity of factories of pipelines, X-Mas Trees and other subsea equipments. Increase in the production capacity of pipes, specially in noble material. Construction of new factories to build equipment for the platforms or for the onshore installation: compressors, pumps, and so on. These actions will result in a significant increase in the Brazilian content of the production development projects for the PreSalt. Consequently, more jobs and income for the Brazilian society will be generated. 10 OTC 19953 Conclusions • The Santos Basin Pre-Salt cluster development presents many uncertainties, mainly related to the reservoir characterization, including facies distribution, hydraulic connection and existence of high permeability layers. These uncertainties are typical of petroleum blocks in the appraisal phase. Other uncertainties are related to the flow assurance through subsea pipelines and material performance in the aggressive fluid environment, in ultra-deep water and high pressure. • In order to control the uncertainties and mitigate the risks, the cluster development is planned to be done in phases. The first phase, or “Phase 0”, is designed to get information. “Phase 1A” is designed to get a balance between information gathering, technology testing and capitalization. A production goal greater than 1 million bbl/d has been defined by Petrobras for the year 2017 (total production operated by Petrobras in the Santos Basin Pre-Salt blocks). The remaining phase, or “Phase 1B” will consider the deployment of new technology in several areas, in order to optimize the cluster development. • Due to its huge area and estimated hydrocarbon volumes, as well as its unique environment (ultradeep waters, high pressure, contaminants, microbial carbonate reservoirs, thick salt layer above the reservoir, waxy oil, among others) the Pre-Salt development is a challenge for Petrobras and its partners. At the same time, it is a great opportunity for the development and deployment of new technologies. • The successful development of the Santos Basin Pre-Salt will be a hallmark for Petrobras and its partners, contributing for the oil industry development, particularly in Brazil. Acknowledgment The authors thank Petrobras and partners in the Pre-Salt Cluster for the permission to publish this paper. The cooperation of the technical teams for the exploration and production development of the Pre-Salt blocks is also appreciated. References 1. 2. Gil, J.A, Machado, M.A.P, Moraes, M.F.B, Carvalho, E.B.A and Wolf, B. – Sucesso Exploratório em Águas Ultra-Profundas na Bacia de Santos – Resultado dos Poços 1-RJS-617D (Parati) e 1-RJS-628A (Tupi). Seminário Interno da Petrobras, (2007). Formigli, J. M. et al – Santos Basin Pre-Satl Cluster: How to Make Production Development Technical and Economically Feasible, Rio Oil and Gas Conference, Rio de Janeiro, (2008). ...
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