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8BondingLewisStructure

8BondingLewisStructure - AP Chemistry Bonding Help Sheet...

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AP Chemistry Bonding Help Sheet Bonding in Different Types of Pure Substances Ionic Bonds: Transfer of electrons between a metal and nonmetal, causes an electrostatic attraction between the positive metal cation and the negative nonmetal anion. Formation of an Ionic Compound Born-Haber Cycle: Step by Step Reaction 1. Metal(s) Metal(g) Endothermic (sublimation) Li(s) Li(g) H = +155.2-kJ 2. Diatomic Non-Metal(g) Monatomic Non-Metal(g) Endothermic ½ F 2 (g) F(g) H = +75.3-kJ (breaking Bond energy) 3. Metal(g) Metal-ion + e - Endothermic (ionization) Li(g) Li + (g) + e - H = +520-kJ 4. Monatomic Nonmetal + e - Nonmetal-ion (electron affinity) F(g) + e - F - (g) H = -333-kJ 5. Electrostatic Metal-ion Non-Metal-ion attraction Exothermic Li + (g) + F - (g) LiF(s) H = -1012-kJ (lattice energy) Overall : Li(s) + ½ F 2 (g) LiF(s) H = -594.1-kJ Exothermic Lattice Energy: the change in energy that takes place when separated gaseous ions are packed together to form an ionic solid. Ions with large charges have higher lattice energy. Strength of Ionic Bonds are determined by a) The Charge on the Ion: The larger the charge the stronger the ionic bond. b) The size of the ion: The smaller the ion, the stronger the electrostatic attraction, therefore the stronger the ionic bond Metallic Bonds occur in Metal elements. Metal cations are surrounded by a sea of mobile valence electrons and therefore conducts electricity. Generally, small metal cations have stronger metallic bonds because the valence electrons will be strongly attracted to the nucleus. Network Covalent Bond : Covalent bonds in a network crystal structure that is held together by a network of covalent bonds that makes it extremely strong. ex. SiO 2, C (diamond) , SiC, Si Covalent Bond occurs when two nonmetals share 2 electrons to form a single bond. Generally each atom contributes one electron each to share.
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AP Chemistry Bonding Help Sheet Types of Covalent Bonds 1. Coordinate Covalent Bond: Both bonding e- being shared come from one atom thus it is weaker than a normal covalent bond. 2. Polar Covalent Bond occurs when the electrons being shared is attracted more to one atom than the other because of higher electronegativity in one atom.
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