Prof-Bakir-Lecture

Prof-Bakir-Lecture - 1 Integrated Circuit: Drivers and...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Integrated Circuit: Drivers and Technologies Muhannad S. Bakir School of ECE Georgia Institute of Technology muhannad.bakir@mirc.gatech.edu ECE offers two courses that cover microfabrication technology in great detail. b ECE 4752: Integrated Circuit Fabrication b ECE 6450: Intro to Microelectronics Technology The objective of this presentation is to give you a perspective on the drivers and technologies that have enabled the progress of the Integrated Circuit 3 Microelectronics Pervasive Force In Shaping Our Life Communication Entertainment Productivity Medical Military Transportation 4 1 st General Purpose Digital Computer - ENIAC (1946) Vacuum Tube (the problem!) Initial Function; firing tables for artillery weapons $6M in 2008-dollars 17,468 vacuum tubes 7,200 crystal diodes 1,500 relays 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors 5M hand-soldered joints 30 tons 680 square feet 150 kW 5k/sec add/subtract UPENN http://www.upenn.edu/almanac/v42/n18/eniac.html http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/abs/html/mags/mi/2006/05/m5005.htm 5 The Transistor Invented - Birth of the Information Revolution First Transistor: 1947 Transistor benefits: Smaller Faster Lower power More reliable http://www.pbs.org/transistor/background1/events/sscomputer.html 6 TRADIC 1 st Transistorised Computer (1954) Built by Bell Labs for the U.S. Air Force (lightweight nature for airborne) flyable solid-state computer 700 point-contact transistors; 10,000 germanium diodes In two years of continuous operation only 17 devices failed http://www.cedmagic.com/history/tradic-transistorized.html http://www.upenn.edu/almanac/v42/n18/eniac.html B-52 Stratofortress http://www.thocp.net/timeline/1952.htm#tradic 7 Early in History The First Interconnect Problem (1950s) Electronic circuits contained 1,000s components (transistors, diodes, rectifiers and capacitors) Problem: Components had to be interconnected!!!-hand-soldering thousands of 1,000s components-expensive, time-consuming, unreliable, etc. b The tyranny of numbers, Jack Morton , VP Bell Labs 1957 Example commercial transistor in 1950s Typical assembly factory 8 Solution to Tyranny of Numbers: Integrated Circuit 1958: First Integrated Circuit (few components) www.ti.com the rest is history 2010: Itanium processor (Tukwila) 2 Billion Transistors !!! www.intel.com 9 Intel Microprocessors Brief History 1971 Intel 4004 P 2,300 transistors 108 KHz 10 m linewidth 1985 Intel 386 P 275K transistors 33 MHz 1.5 m 1997 Intel PII P 7.5 M-transistor 300 MHz 0.25 m 2006 Intel Core 2 Duo 291 M-transistor 2.4 GHz 0.065 m Microelectronics in Retrospect : 1960--2009 The Silicon Microchip * Productivity (>10 9 ) * Performance (>10 6 ) 10 Microelectronics in Retrospect : 1960--2009 The Silicon Microchip * Productivity (>10 9 ) * Performance (>10 6 ) Both productivity & performance have been increased by scaling the most potent fuel energizing the microchip engine....
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Prof-Bakir-Lecture - 1 Integrated Circuit: Drivers and...

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