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ClassNotes - Psychology 355 Adolescent Psychology Important...

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Psychology 355: Adolescent Psychology Important Developmental Themes in Adolescent Psychology one way to categorize developmental schemes is to considering the combinations of person and environment by the degree of active or passive involvement in development. Environment Passive Active Person Passive Active Static Linear Transformational Transactional passive person-passive environment models: inactive individuals who have a inactive environment imprinted upon them static models : for example the old "kids are miniature adults" idea that pervaded western thought at the beginning of this century this idea still pervades contemporary thought .... for example parents and teachers often attribute adult intentions to child and adolescent behavior passive person-active environment: behavioral conditioning theories that infer a “blank slate” such as operant behavior models in which an active agent in the environment
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directs an individual’s development 2
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behavioral theories tend to be uni-directional and they focus on quantity of behavior as a consequence of external reinforcement rather than on quality active persons-passive environments: cognitive theories like Piaget or Chomsky transformation models postulate that what exists earlier in development will effect current functioning development proceeds in an orderly fashion along a developmental trajectory typically changes proceed from global to more segregated and specific functioning or from more simple to more complex types of behaviors often the theorists who have proposed transformative models (Erickson, Piaget, etc.) emphasize several themes THERE IS AN INVARIANT ORDER OR STAGES TO DEVELOPMENT NO STAGE CAN BE SKIPPED EACH STAGE IS MORE COMPLEX THAN THE PRECEDING , AND REPRESENTS A TRANSFORMATION OF THE PRECEDING STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT EACH STAGE HAS ITS FOUNDATION IN THE PRECEDING STAGE AND SERVES AS A FOUNDATION FOR SUCCEEDING STAGES However, we know that development is even more complex than these transformation models assume development is discontinuous sometimes children and adolescents undergo regression , where they revert to behaviors characteristic of previous stages of development. sometimes developmental competencies are very specific to situations and therefore “spotty” children adapt to their social environment and this alters development sometimes for the better, sometimes not active persons-active environments: individuals change reality and reality changes individuals ..... the idea of reciprocal determinism. 3
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transactional models: an adolescent is a product of the continuous dynamic interaction between the child and the experience provided by family and social context. This perspective is the main thesis behind Bronfenbrenner’s Social Ecology Theory Bronfenbrenner theorized that people inhabit a variety of ‘nested’ systems the microsystem : the immediate physical setting in which a person resides.
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