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first study guide

first study guide - QUESTION neuroendocrinology ANSWER...

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QUESTION ANSWER What two disciplines make up  neuroendocrinology? Neuroscience and endocrinology What do neuroendocrinologists study? How the two systems interact with one  another What are three important traits of  hormones? Explain. Highly specific (only bind to specific  receptors), extremely potent (small  amount of blood can make a huge  effect) and tightly regulated (synthesis  and secretion) What is a neuron? Be able to label the  parts. A basic unit of the nervous system What are similarities between neural  and endocrine systems? Explain. Use chemical messengers  (neural=neurotransmitter,  endocrine=hormones), act via  receptors in target cells What are differences between neural  and endocrine systems? Explain. Act over different distances  (neurotransmitters=short,  hormones=long distance) and  latencies/durations  (neuro=instantaneously and short  duration, hormones=slowly and  prolonged effects) What is an example showing how  hormones effect behavior? Study on cockerels, removal of testes (testosterone) reduces aggression and size of wattle What is an example showing behaviors  effect hormones? Stress induces the release of cortisol How was castration used throughout  history? Give examples. Male singers were castrated to maintain a soprano (high pitched) voice Explain Arnold Berthold’s experiment.  What were his conclusions? Berthold castrated cockerels and observed that their aggression decreased as well as the size of their coddles and once they were replaced aggression returned, wattles were normal but testes were larger than previously What did Bayliss and Starling do first?  How? They isolated and named the first hormone by experimenting with pancreatic reactions
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to stomach acid/ denervation etc. How did Frank Beach influence  neuroendocrinology? Wrote “hormones and behavior” What did the PiGGY Paper  demonstrate? That hormones have a significantly different effect on an individual if administered early on in development also known as the “sensitive period” What is the relationship between DNA and proteins? DNA is needed to make proteins. It is the code to protein sequences What are two major differences between DNA and RNA? DNA resides in the nucleus where RNA can leave the nucleus. Also DNA is double stranded where RNA is single stranded What are peptides? Short proteins What are some forms that proteins can take on? Hormones, Hormone receptor, enzymes,
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