studyguide2 - The adrenal gland is two glands. What is each...

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The adrenal gland is two glands. What is each gland called and how is each controlled? Cortex – conrolled by anterior pituitary Medulla – controlled by direct innervation What is the precursor to all steroids? What are 4 types of steroid hormones and how do they relate to each other and the precursor? Cholesterol progestins glucocorticoids, androgens estrogens What are two types of steroid hormones produced by the ovaries? Give a specific example of each type. Estrogen – ex. Estradiol Progestin – ex. progesterone What is one type of steroid hormone produced by the testes? Give a specific example of this type of steroid. Androgen – ex. testosterone Testosterone is precursor for what two steroids? DHT (dihydratestosterone) + Estradiol What are three types of axes and their associated glands and hormones? HPG – GnRH + LH Gonads HPA – CRH + ACTH Adrenal Cortex HPT – TRH + TSH Thyroid What three glands are not controlled by the anterior pituitary? How are they controlled? Pineal Gland – direct innervation Pancreas – innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves Adrenal Medulla – stimulated by sympathetic nerves What are two posterior pituitary hormones? Where are they synthesized? What are the important functions of each hormone? Both synthesized in cell bodies of hypothalamus Oxytocin – milk release, uterine contraction at birth AVP (Argenine Vasopressin) – anti- diuretic hormone, water retention (blood pressure) What does the pineal gland produce? What is one important role of this hormone? Melatonin – plays important role in seasonal reproduction, released when in darkness maintaining daily rhythms How does the pineal gland get information about light and dark in mammals? How does this differ from lower vertebrates? Via pathways from photoreceptors to pineal gland in mammals, lower vertebrates have a third eye that directly responds to light/dark The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine gland. What are the endocrine parts called? Islets of Langerhans What two hormones does the pancreas produce? What are their effects on the body? Insulin – decreases blood sugar Glucagon – increases blood sugar How does each part of the nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) influence insulin secretion? Parasympathetic nerves stimulate insulin secretion Sympathetic nerves inhibit insulin secretion. What are two hormones produced by the adrenal gland and which part of the adrenal Cortex – corisol Medulla – epinephrine/adrenaline
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gland is each secreted from? What part of the nervous system innervates the adrenal medulla? Sympathetic nervous system Define sexual dimorphism. the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex What are some explanations for behavioral dimorphism in humans? Give an example of how talking about sexual dimorphism can influence or create it. Sexual dimorphisms can be influenced by
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studyguide2 - The adrenal gland is two glands. What is each...

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