CHAPTER 16 - A pest is any organism that is noxious...

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A pest is any organism that is noxious, destructive, or troublesome. Fig. 17.2 Non-agricultural and agricultural use is shown for the time period of 1964-1995. (Data from Environmental Protection Agency.) Insecticide Rodenticide Fungicide Acaricide Metals (arsenic trioxide), Bordeaux mixture (copper sulfate, lime, and water),
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sulfuric acid, Paris Green (copper arsenite), calcium arsenite (DDT, toxaphene, dieldren) Broad spectrum and persistent Eliminated due to environmental consequences bioaccumulation Don't know the mechanisms of action for many Typically less persistent but more acutely toxic than the organochlorines Primarily nerve toxins Target a portion of the insect life-cycle to reduce pesticide population May be endocrine disrupters for nontarget organisms Fig. 17.4 Using pesticides causes selection (survival of the fittest) for those individuals that are resistant. As we continue to use pesticides, we breed insects and other pests that are increasingly resistant to the pesticides used against them.
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Fig. 17.5 Food chains exist among insects just as they do among higher animals. Fig. 17.6 The continued use of these products demands ever-increasing dosages of pesticides, which further aggravate pest problems and produce more contamination of foodstuffs and ecosystems.
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Pesticides are typically made from petroleum.
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