Proteins Extra Notes

Proteins Extra Notes - February 10, 2009 (Proteins)...

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February 10, 2009 (Proteins) Immunoglobins - disease fighting proteins in cows Proteins are the largest and most diverse macromolecules 1. Enzymes – make reactions go faster 2. Hormones – chemical messengers, turn reactions on and off 3. Transport – help move molecules a. Through membranes b. In the blood 4. Structural – mechanical support a. Hair b. Cartilage c. Bone d. Feathers 5. Contractile – allow muscles to contract 6. Protective – anti bodies which fight diseases 7. Storage – stored food in seed embryos and eggs 8. Toxins – kill some bacteria 9. Communication – cell signaling Where do we get protein? 1. Meat has ~ 43% protein 2. Milk has ~ 27% protein 3. Eggs have ~ 50% protein Endosperm – mostly starch, some protein called gluten Embryo (baby plant) – most of the protein is here Lots of countries eat bread for ceremony purposes that doesn’t use risers - They used a pinch of soil or beer foam to make it rise, but it was considered impure Number 1 food crop for people ~ RICE Number 2 food crop for people ~ WHEAT Protein shortage is the major world food problem – NOT calories Causes irreversible brain damage Malnutrition disease called kwashiorkor (bloated stomach with tiny limbs) Protein Structure it critical Made up of amino acids o 8 are “ essential amino acids” (body can’t produce them) Complete vs. Incomplete o Complete – protein has all 8 essential amino acids o Incomplete – protein missing one or more essential amino acids
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Amino Acids are building blocks of proteins, made up of four parts (textbooks) 1. Amine Group NH 3 2. Carboxyl COO - 3. Carbon with H + 4. R group, (makes amino acids look different) Protein Structure (4 Levels) 1. Primary – the order of amino acids in a protein 2. Secondary – shape of molecules changes due to covalent bonding a. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms, may be coiled or flat
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2011 for the course ISB 202 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Proteins Extra Notes - February 10, 2009 (Proteins)...

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