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Chapter_1_PP - CEP 260 Dynamics of Personal Adjustment...

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Unformatted text preview: CEP 260 Dynamics of Personal Adjustment Adjustment Week 1 Week •Introductions/ Notecards •Ice Breaker •Syllabus •Angel Demonstration •Chapter 1 Lecture •Adjustment •The Experimental Method •Happiness 2 Syllabus and Angel Demonstration Demonstration •Discussion of Reading, Assignments, Grading, Schedule, etc. •Class expectations •My approach to this class •Angel: email forwarded to get reminders •Any questions? 3 4 Class Introductions Class On 3 x 5 Notecards please write the following info: Full name Decided/Planned Major Class (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) What do you hope to gain from this class? Other psychology or CEP college courses you have taken: 5 21 Questions 21 6 Chapter 1: Adjusting to Modern Life Chapter Adjusting The Psychology of Adjustment Adjustment Living in Modern Society: Living The Paradox of Progress -Technology -Affluence -Choice -Control Can you think of examples of each of these? How do we cope with these challenges? 8 Technology: A Help or a Hindrance? Hindrance? • Do you think technology is Do improving or complicating our lives? How? What is the fundamental thing that people are looking for in life? people • Debate this issue in groups Debate and be prepared to present the key points of each side of the debate to the whole class 9 The search for direction: The • The greatest challenge of modern life may be The our search for meaning in life or a sense of direction. direction. • Some people find positive sources of Some guidance. guidance. • In desperation, sometimes people turn to In ineffective and/or self-destructive sources for enlightenment (e.g., radio personalities, cults) enlightenment • Self-help books are an extremely popular Self-help source of advice. Some offer advice based on In this class we will…. In •Learn and benefit from Learn psychology psychology •Develop critical thinking skills •Encourage active problem Encourage solving solving 11 5 minute break minute 12 What is Psychology? What Definition of Psychology: Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental The processes The profession that applies the accumulated The profession knowledge of this science to practical problems problems Psychology focuses on behavior, mental and Psychology physiological processes physiological The focus of Psychology: The Psychology Behavior: any overt (observable) response or Behavior: activity by an organism activity Mental processes: cognitions, thoughts, Mental feelings, wishes, etc.. these are more difficult to study but have critical influence on behavior on Physiological processes: physical physical phenomena that can affect behavior, such as neural impulses, hormonal secretions, and genetic coding genetic Definition of Adjustment: Adjustment The psychological processes through The which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life life Describe a “Winner” Describe 1. Identify a “winner” or well-adjusted person in 1. your life and what relationship this person has to you (e.g. sibling, coach, teacher). you 2. Do the same for someone who is not welladjusted. 3. With a partner, list what your descriptions have 3. in common. in MOVE to talk to someone new for this activity! Psychology is a SCIENCE SCIENCE Empiricism: the premise that the knowledge should be acquired through observation observation Scientific conclusions are based on systematic Scientific observation rather than on reasoning, speculation, traditional beliefs, or common sense. traditional The science of psychology The 1. Formulate a hypothesis 2. Gather data (make observations) 3. Use statistics to analyze data 4. Report results to public (usually through journals) Advantages of scientific approach: Clarity and precision Relative intolerance of error What is an experiment? What experiment Experiment: a research method in which an Experiment: investigator manipulates one (independent) variable (independent variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second (dependent) variable as a result Come up with one example and share it with the Come person sitting next to you. person Independent and Dependent Variables Independent variable: condition or event that an Independent experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable another Dependent variable: the variable that is thought to the be affected by the manipulations of the independent variable variable IV DV Example of an Experiment: Example Does misery love company? Does (Schachter, 1959) (Schachter, Research Question: How does anxiety affect Research people’s desire to be with others? Do people want to be alone or with others when they Do feel anxiety? feel Does misery love company? company? Participants told they would be in a study of Participants the physiological effects of electric shock the Hypothesis: Increases in anxiety would cause increases in the desire to be with others Does misery love company? company? Dependent Variable: Need for affiliation Independent Variable: anxiety level Independent anxiety High-anxiety group: “Shocks would be very High-anxiety painful” painful” Low-anxiety group: “Shocks would be mild and painless” and Experimental vs. Control Experimental Group Group Experimental Group: consists of subjects who consists receive some special treatment in regard to the IV receive Control Group: consists of similar subjects who do consists not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group experimental Assumption experimental and control groups are Assumption alike except for their different treatment in regard to the IV the The experiment The Pro: Allows scientists to draw conclusions based on Pro: cause-and-effect relationship between variables. In other words, causality. causality Con: Variables cannot be manipulated because of Con: ethical concerns or practical realities ethical Example 1 Example An educational psychologist wants to explore An whether a new math program, which involves textbooks with special colored pictures will help high school students in learning geometry. Half of the students are randomly assigned to traditional textbooks, while the other half are assigned to special textbooks. Scores on a standardized geometry test are measured at the end of the semester. semester. • Independent variable: • Dependent variable: • Control group: • Experimental group: Example 2 Example A workplace psychologist believes that giving workplace workers frequent but small rewards will improve worker morale and productivity more than the standard reward program (infrequent large rewards to only the best employees). In order to test this hypothesis, some managers are instructed in giving their employees frequent but small rewards, while others are left to continue with the standard reward program. • Independent variable: • Dependent variable: • Control group: • Experimental group: Correlational Research Correlational Correlation: exists when 2 variables are related to exists each other each Correlation coefficient: a numerical index of the numerical degree of relationship between 2 variables degree CORRELATION CORRELATION CAUSATION!! Correlations Correlations Positive Positive Relationship: two variables covary in the same direction the y High scores in x, High high scores in y high x Eg: High school Eg: GPA and college Correlations Correlations Negative Relationships: Negative two variables covary in the opposite direction the y High scores in x, High low scores in y low Eg: High number of Eg: absences and low exam scores exam x Correlations Correlations Correlational Research Correlational Naturalistic observation: A researcher engages in Naturalistic careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects directly Behavior is observed in its natural environment (as Behavior opposed to in the lab). opposed Can you think of an example of naturalistic Can observation? Share it with your neighbor. observation? Correlational Research Correlational Case studies: An in-depth investigation of an Case individual participant individual May include interviews, interviews of others who know May the person the Can not generalize based on case studies Why would we need case studies? Correlational Research Correlational Surveys: Structured questionnaires designed to Surveys: solicit information about specific aspects of participant’s behavior participant’s used to gather data on people’s attitudes and on used aspects of behavior that are difficult to observe directly directly MSU Survey of Incoming Freshman: MSU What percentage of first year MSU students use an What illegal substance? illegal What percentage of first year MSU students What consume alcohol while underage? Alcohol and Substance Abuse at MSU at *Lange, N.Q. (2005). First year students 2005: Mid­generation Millenials—Are they different from the first year students of 2000? http://www.reslife.msu.edu/research/data/2005_2006/FTF05/FTF05.pdf Correlational Studies Correlational Pro: Used to explore questions that cannot be Pro: examined with experimental procedures examined Con: Cannot be used to demonstrate cause-and- effect relationships between variables 5 minute break minute BREAK 41 What factors lead to happiness? happiness? Happiness Happiness What is “happiness”? Subjective well being: individual’s personal Subjective assessment of their overall happiness or life satisfaction satisfaction Assumption most people are relatively unhappy Assumption Happiness Happiness Reality: When people are asked to rate their When happiness, only a small minority place themselves below the neutral point themselves In other words: MOST PEOPLE ARE HAPPY But not necessarily equally happy Happiness What are the top three things that make What you happy? you According to scientists, what factors According actually do correlate with happiness? actually 46 46 Not important for happiness: happiness: Money Gender Age Parenthood Intelligence Physical attractiveness Somewhat important Somewhat Health Social activity Social Religion Very important for Happiness Very Love and marriage Love is most critical ingredient of happiness Marriage status correlates with happiness Married people happier than single or divorced Married and is cross-cultural and Causal relationship is unclear Causal (correlation causation) *Does happiness cause the marital satisfaction *Does or does marital satisfaction cause happiness?? happiness?? Very important for Happiness Very Work Job satisfaction correlated with happiness Unemployment has very negative effects on Unemployment subjective well-being subjective Personality Best predictor of happiness correlates of happiness include self-esteem, correlates extraversion, optimism extraversion, BBC Focus on Happiness BBC What makes people happy? http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/happiness_formu 52 Conclusions about happiness happiness We only have correlational data We can not draw cause-and-effect conclusions! We can draw inferences: Happiness shaped by a variety of variables Objective realities are not as important as subjective Objective feelings feelings People often adapt to their circumstances Hedonic adaptation: people change the baseline or Hedonic neutral point of their mental scale that is used to judge pleasant or unpleasant experiences pleasant For next week… For Due Next Week: Read Chapter 1 and 2 Visit http://outofservice.com/bigfive/ Visit http://outofservice.com/bigfive/ Print Results & Bring to Class ...
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