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Chapter2PP - Today’s Agenda Today’s •Course...

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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Agenda Today’s •Course clarifications •Review of Last Week •Happiness Survey Happiness Results Results •Warm-Up •Discussion of Big 5 Discussion Results Results •Chapter 2 Lecture: Chapter Personality Personality Course Assignments and Clarifications Clarifications Thankfulness exercise Syllabus updates Breaking a Social Norm Participation: Participation: What does a 5 look like? What does a 1 look like? Theories of Personality Personality Chapter 2 What Is Personality? What Personality- an individual’s unique unique constellation of consistent consistent behavioral traits behavioral Personality trait- a durable durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations way The “Big Five” Traits The Robert McCrae and Paul Costa identified five “higher-order” traits: 1. Extraversion (outgoing, sociable, friendly, talkative) 2. Neuroticism (anxious, hostile, insecure, selfconscious) 3. Openness (curiosity, flexibility, imaginative, curiosity, unconventional) unconventional 4. Agreeableness (sympathetic, trusting, cooperative) 5. Conscientiousness (diligent, disciplined, organized) Quick way to remember these: “OCEAN” Your Big 5 Results Your Were your results consistent with what you expected? What did you like about the test? What did you not like about the test? What similarities did you see among the results of your What group members? group Where might you differ? How might you apply this information to areas of your How life? life? Do you think these 5 traits are adequate for describing Do personality? personality? The Nature of Personality The Personality: An individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits The stability of a person’s behavior over time and across situations The behavioral differences among people acting in the same situation Personality Traits Personality Trait A durable disposition to behave in a durable particular way in a variety of situations particular Example: What traits to you hear the media using Example: to describe Obama? to Four Perspectives on Personality Personality 1. Psychodynamic 2. Behavioral 3. Humanistic 4. Biological Psychodynamic Main Tenants 1) Unconscious forces govern Unconscious human behavior human 2) Childhood experiences strongly Childhood determine adult personality determine 3) Individuals’ personalities are Individuals’ shaped by how they cope with their sexual urges their Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Freud’s Structure of Personality ID ID SUPEREGO SUPEREGO (primitive, instinctual) (moral, social standards) EGO EGO (decision-making, reality) What famous people or characters exemplify these personality structures? Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Internal conflicts between the id, ego, and superego superego => ANXIETY => defense mechanisms: largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from painful emotions such as anxiety and guilty guilty Defense mechanisms: Defense Rationalization (excuses) Rationalization (excuses) Repression (motivated forgetting) Repression (motivated Projection (it’s them, not me!) Projection (it’s Displacement (kicking the dog) Displacement (kicking Reaction Formation (behavior is opposite from Reaction feelings) feelings) Regression (immaturity) Regression (immaturity) Identification (I’m a rock star!) Identification (I’m What defense mechanisms do you use? Defense Mechanism Practice Practice A person who believes that stealing is wrong just person walked out of a store without paying for a candy bar. walked A person who is married is attracted to his next-door person neighbor neighbor A student who sees herself as honest just cheated student on a math test on A person who is trying to quit smoking, just took a person smoking break at work. smoking Name that Defense Mechanism Name T is a 40-year-old businessperson who recently is completed a round of court-ordered psychotherapy and AA meetings that resulted from 2 arrests in the space of 2 years for DUI. With his driver’s license reinstated, he is no longer compelled to attend therapy or groups. He is back to the usual routine – 90 minute business lunches with important clients that usually include anywhere from 1 to 3 alcoholic beverages. beverages. Name that Defense Mechanism Name C is a senior in high school. Two months is prior to graduation, C’s parents have announced that they are getting divorced. They were married for over 27 years. C’s friends all comment that C seems to be handling this crisis so well. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory (cont.) Freud’s Psychosexual stages: developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality personality Oral (0-1) Oral (0-1) Anal (2-3) Anal (2-3) Phallic (4-5) Phallic (4-5) Latency (6-12) Latency (6-12) Genital (puberty onward) Genital (puberty FIXATION = failure to move through the stages as FIXATION expected. Jung’s Analytical Psychology Jung’s Personal unconscious (similar to Personal Freud’s) Freud’s) Collective unconscious: latent Collective memories that are traced from our ancestral past, shared by the entire human race human Archetypes: symbols with universal Archetypes: meaning. Archetypes often appear in art and in our dreams. Jung focused on dream analysis of his patients. on Archetypal Personalities: Archetypal The King The Strong Man The Hero The Trickster The Female Warrior The Love Goddess The Jester Which famous people in our society fit these archetypes? Adler’s Individual Psychology Adler’s Compensation: efforts to overcome imagined or Compensation: real inferiority by developing one’s abilities (normal) (normal) Complexes (not normal) Inferiority—exaggerated feelings of weakness —exaggerated and inadequacy and Superiority—exaggerated feelings of —exaggerated greatness greatness Overcompensation: done to conceal, even Overcompensation: from themselves, feelings of inferiority from Any criticisms of psychodynamic theory? psychodynamic Get into groups of three to brainstorm… Psychodynamic Perspectives Perspectives Strengths Weaknesses BREAK BREAK Behavioral Perspective Behavioral Main Tenants: Behaviorism: theoretical orientation based theoretical on the premise that scientific psychology should study observable behavior. should Personality: a collection of responses that Personality: are tied to various stimulus situations are Classical Conditioning Introduction Introduction Classic Conditioning in the Office! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znAzMkn5Ey0 Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Classical conditioning: type of learning in Classical which a neural stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus another Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned Response (UCR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Response (CR) Pavlov’s Experiment Pavlov’s Dog salivates when sees food UCR (salivation) UCS Pavlov’s Experiment Pavlov’s Dog hear bell + food salivates Dog BELL Pavlov’s Experiment Pavlov’s Dog salivates when it hears a bell. CR (salivation) CS BELL Identify the Components of Classical Conditioning Classical Before she got her driver’s license, seeing police cars Before and their flashing red lights did not bother Olive. But then she started driving and has been pulled over several times for speeding. Each time she was pulled over, first she saw the flashing red lights of the police car. Then she would be questioned by the police and given a ticket which made her feel very tense and upset. Now whenever she sees a police car with its flashing lights on she feels a little bit nervous, even if it is pulling over someone else. nervous, Neutral Stimulus (NS): Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned Response (UCR): Conditioned Stimulus (CS): Conditioned Response (CR): Baby Albert Video Baby http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=- 8331168072486928717 Watson’s Experiments on Baby Albert Baby Can you think of any anxieties or fears you Can have (eg: an aversion to a certain situation) that may have developed through classical conditioning? conditioning? (Police car example) Get into small groups and come up with an Get example of classical conditioning to share with the class. with Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Conditioning Operant conditioning: a form of learning in Operant which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences controlled --found that organisms tend to: Repeat responses followed by GOOD Repeat consequences consequences DO NOT repeat responses followed by BAD DO consequences consequences Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Conditioning Positive reinforcement: response is Positive strengthened b/c it is followed by pleasant strengthened stimulus stimulus Negative reinforcement: response is strengthened b/c it is followed by removal of strengthened removal unpleasant stimulus unpleasant Punishment: response is weakened b/c Punishment: weakened followed by arrival of unpleasant stimulus arrival (note that punishment and negative note reinforcement are different) reinforcement Extinction: gradual weakening and Extinction: disappearance of a conditioned response Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Conditioning Negative Reinforcement or Punishment? Punishment? Your little brother whines and whines and pleads and Your pleads and moans and groans until you agree to lend him $10 (which you always end up doing). $10 A teenager receives a sentence from the probation teenager department of cleaning the neighborhood park for two weeks for his part in a series of neighborhood pranks. weeks Your mother makes you feel really guilty by bugging you Your until you agree to visit your boring relatives for Thanksgiving. Thanksgiving. A father locks up his son’s skateboard and bicycle after father he catches him using those items without a helmet. he Classical and Operant Conditioning Conditioning A young child is very difficult to put to bed in young the evening. She cries and cries and cries. Why? How could you explain this using classical How conditioning? conditioning? Operant conditioning? Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Theory Observational learning: occurs when an organism’s Observational responding is influenced by models responding Models have great impact on personality Models development development People tend to imitate People others they like or respect Consider attractive or powerful (celebrities) Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Theory Self-efficacy: one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes behaviors High: feels confident in executing responses to earn High: reinforcers reinforcers Low: worries that necessary responses may be beyond Low: abilities abilities What do you think? What What are the pros and cons of the behavioral What perspective? perspective? Behavioral Perspectives Behavioral Evaluating the Behavioral Perspectives Strengths Weaknesses Humanistic Perspectives Humanistic Main Tenants Humanism: theoretical orientation theoretical that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans free will free potential for personal growth Rogers’ Person-Centered Theory Rogers’ The self and its development Self-concept: collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior nature, Incongruence: disparity between one’s self-concept and one’s actual growth experience and Anxiety and defense Anxiety The more inaccurate your self-concept, the more The likely you are to have experiences that clash with your self-perceptions your You may use more defense mechanisms Maslow’s Theory of SelfMaslow’s Actualization Hierarchy of needs Systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority basic needs must be met before less basic needs are basic aroused aroused Self-actualization: need to fulfill one’s potential “Healthy personality” Self-actualizing persons Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s Are your needs being met? Where are you on this Are pyramid? pyramid? What do you think? What What are the pros and cons of the humanistic What perspective? perspective? Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives Perspectives Strengths -Human perspective— -subjective reality may be more important that objective reality Weaknesses -Poor testability -Unrealistic view of human nature (overly optimistic) -Inadequate evidence Biological Perspectives Biological Main Tenants Nature rather than nurture Genetics determine personality Eysenck’s Theory Eysenck’s Personality is largely determined by Personality person’s genes person’s Research on Behavioral Genetics Twin studies– identical vs. fraternal twins Heritability ratio: estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations of genetic inheritance variations What do you think? What Is your personality the result of nature or nurture? Is How much is nature and how much is nurture on a scale from 1-10? scale What are the pros and cons of the biological What perspective on personality? perspective Evaluating Biological Perspectives Perspectives For Next Week: For Read chapter 3 and 4 (quiz next week???) RELAX: do something to relieve your stress. RELAX: Come prepared to discuss ways that you deal with stress in your life. with Take a nap Go to dinner with a friend Exercise Read a book ...
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