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Unit_6_-_Paper_and_Paperboard - Unit 6 Paper and Paperboard...

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6. 1 Unit 6 Paper and Paperboard In this unit, we will learn about paper and paperboard including the history of paper, the differences between paper and paperboard, how they are manufactured, their properties, and how they are used as packaging materials. 6.1 Brief History of Paper Historians do not know precisely when or how paper was invented, but 105 AD is often listed as the year of invention because that is when Ts'ai Lun, eunuch of the Imperial court of China, reported the invention of papermaking to the Emperor. The original raw materials for paper making were rags and cloth, but the tree bark and other plant materials were also used. Mulberry tree bark was used because it was plentiful in China and porous and easy to break up. The early papermaking process started by soaking the rags and bark in limewater and then beating the mix with a wooden mallet or mortar and pestle to separate the fibers. A single sheet of paper was formed by pouring the mixture on a screen made from a mat of thin reeds covered with silk or a horsehair filter. The water passed through the screen, leaving a mat of fibers behind. The sheets of paper were dried by hanging them out in the air or by pressing them on a slab of porous or absorbent material. The "dried" sheets were then laid out in the sun to bleach. This process was kept secret in China for several hundred years. In the late 700s, a paper plant in Turkestan was captured by Syrian soldiers during a battle. Several skilled papermakers were taken as prisoners to Samarkand. Using the prisoners knowledge, the Syrians built and operated papermaking facilities. Then, through the normal process of trade, papermaking soon spread to Baghdad and on to Egypt, Morocco, England, France, and the rest of the world. 6.1.1 Paper Manufacturing in America The first plant to make paper in America was located in Philadelphia and opened for business in 1690. The plant produced a single sheet at a time, using a manufacturing process that was still very similar to the original batch process invented in China. A similar operation was established in Jamestown, VA. (This city was quite popular for the development of packaging processes, eh?). 6.1.2 Paper Demand For centuries, the demand for paper was quite limited; however, that changed around 1500, when Gutenberg invented the printing press. Gutenberg made it possible to manufacture multiple copies of books and other documents. As a result, the demand for paper increased rapidly and the rag supply quickly became inadequate. The increased demand forced a shift to wood as raw material for manufacturing paper because trees ensured a generous and reliable supply of fibers. This created a need for continuous processes for faster production. Two processes were developed in France and England during the late 1700s and the early 1800s: the Fourdrinier process and the Cylinder process. These processes are still in use today.
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6. 2 6.2 The Paper Industry Today Currently, the worldwide use of paper is continuing to increase, even as internet-based e-mail and e-commerce also are growing.
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Unit_6_-_Paper_and_Paperboard - Unit 6 Paper and Paperboard...

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