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# exam1_studyguide - Study guide for Exam 1 TC201 Summer 2010...

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Study guide for Exam 1, TC201 Summer 2010 The following outline demonstrates the concepts and terms with which you should be familiar for the exam. Not everything on this list may make it to the exam, but nothing from the exam will not be on this list. Signals What are they? Signals are variations in the medium across time. The plot of the signal gives it a waveform shape What are the parameters of a signal? Amplitude, Frequency, Phase What is amplitude? The distance from resting position of the wave to the high or low of a wave. The form of variation is called the envelope of the wave. What is frequency? Rate at which the wave repeats itself, and is measured in Hz o Number of cycles per 1 second of time How is a wavelength calculated? Wavelength is the distance the wave travels in one period o Calculation : wavelength = speed / frequency What’s the basic insight of the Fourier Theorem? All wave shapes can be broken down into a combination of sine waves. What is a spectrum? A continuous range of frequencies o In a given part of the spectrum, waves have common characteristics Spectrum of a signal describes the frequency content of the signal What is a “band”? A given frequency is given a name, and anything that has the same frequency, falls on the band of the spectrum How do you calculate bandwidth? Bandwidth = Upper Frequency – Lower Frequency

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Transmission What are the basic elements of a transmission system? Three Basic Elements o Transmitter: takes information and converts it to a signal o Medium: where the signal is carried o Receiver: receives signal and converts it back to useable information Circuit: A communication path, over an established medium, between two or more points, from end-to-end, between transmitter and receiver Switch: A device that establishes, maintains and changes logical connections over physical circuits What are the basic types of circuits and the differences between them? Dedicated : Directly connects devices across a network without accessing a switch, available 24 hours a day o Hot line between White House and Kremlin Switched : connected on a flexible basis through one or more intermediate switching devices Virtual : data from a source user is passed to a destination user over various real circuit configuration during a single period of communication o Logical, rather than a Physical Connection o Can be predefined and fixed (permanent), or dynamically determined at a time of transmission (switched) What are the ways of measuring bandwidth? Hertz Baud : the number of distinct symbol changes (signaling events) made to the transmission medium per second in a digital signal o Changes 4 times = 4 bauds Narrowband : transmission channel with single voice channel o 4kHz or less; 64 kbps or less Wideband : transmission channel with wider bandwidth than one voice channel Broadband : More than 64 kbps, usually can provide multiple channels of data over a single communications medium (144kbps or higher)
Be prepared to compare analog signals with digital signals.

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exam1_studyguide - Study guide for Exam 1 TC201 Summer 2010...

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