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KIN216_1-2 - KIN 216 KIN 216 Applied Human Anatomy...

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Unformatted text preview: KIN 216 KIN 216 Applied Human Anatomy Instructor Jennifer Vollner Slides Adapted from Dr. Pfeiffer’s KIN 216 Review of Syllabus Review of Syllabus iClicker registration will be iClicker registration will be done during class Exam/Quiz Rebuttals Exam/Quiz Rebuttals If you disagree with the grading of any question(s) and want to make your case for getting points back, you may submit a BRIEF explanation no later than one week after the exam/quiz. Rebuttals should be TYPE­WRITTEN and should include: Name and PID Exam form (ex: A,B,C,D) Question number Your explanation (including documentation from textbook, dictionary, or other source, if possible) YOU MUST ATTACH your answer sheet AND/OR scantron feedback sheet !!! NO rebuttals for exam 5 Spelling Spelling Anytime an answer on an exam or quiz requires you to write words, you will have points taken off for any spelling errors on (1/2 point removed for each error) Correct spelling is critical in medical and clinical type environments (and life in general) Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Introduction, History, Anatomical Terminology, Anatomical Organization Background Background Origin of the term “anatomy” Ana = up Tomos = to cut Term literally means “to cut up” Anatomy = the science of the structure of the human body (functional definition) Structure (anatomy) vs. function (physiology) Biology: study of living organisms Both anatomy and physiology are sub­ disciplines of biology (Greek bios = life, logy = the study of) Physiology: science of the function of the human body (Greek physis = growth, nature) Terminology Terminology Learning word roots will be very important for this class and for your future Prefixes Neuro = nerve Sarco (and myo) = muscle Chondro = cartilage Hema/hemo/hemat = blood Glu/gly = sugar Lipo = fat Cyto = cell Osteo = bone Suffixes lemma = membrane algia = pain blast = primitive cell lysis = split/break genesis = build, create oma = tumor, mass malacia = softening cyte = cell Examples of Complete Words Examples of Complete Words neurolemma sarcoblast/myoblast sarcoma chondralgia neuralgia chondroblast chondroblastoma neuroma hemolysis glycolysis gluconeogenesis myalgia nerve cell membrane primitive muscle cell muscle tumor pain in cartilage nerve pain primitive cartilage cell primitive cartilage cell tumor tumor in nerve cell blood cell splitting/breakdown sugar breakdown forming new sugar muscle pain NOTE: You are responsible for any prefixes/suffixes discussed in lecture or shown in the front cover of your textbook; also, literal meaning is sometimes different from practical definition (ex: anatomy) Plurals Plurals Singular ­a ­en ­ex ­is ­es ­is ­ides ­on ­um ­us ­us ­x ­y Plural ­ae ­ina ­ices ­a ­a ­i ­ora ­ges ­ies Example vertebra vertibrae foramen foramina cortex cortices testis testes epididymis epididymides mitochondrion mitochondria epithelium epithelia humerus humeri corpus corpora phalanx phalanges artery arteries Review of Units Review of Units Meter (m) = 100 m 100 = 1; 101 = 10; 102 = 100 Centimeter (cm) = 10­2 m 100cm = 1m 1cm = .01m Millimeter (mm) = 10­3 m 1000mm = 1m 10mm = 1cm Micrometer (µ m) = 10­6 m 1000µ m = 1mm 1,000,000 = 1m (aka micron) Nanometer (nm) = 10­9 m 1000nm = 1µ m 1,000,000,000nm = 1m Angstrom (Å) = 10­10 m 10Å = 1nm Angstroms usually describe bond lengths between molecules *Naked eye can discriminate to about 10­4 m History of Anatomy History of Anatomy Hippocrates: 4­5 century BC, Greek, Humoralism (he attributed illness to natural causes rather than the gods)­ Hippocratic oath named after him Aristotle: 384­322 BC, Greek, first recorded anatomy drawings (lots of animals)­ he thought brain cooled blood from heart to maintain body temperature Galen: 2nd century AD, Greek but lived in Rome, pharmacology­ lots of work with animals as well Vesalius: 1500’s, Renaissance era, from Belgium but lived in Italy­ refuted Galen (got in trouble for it too), can be considered the father of modern anatomy Harvey: 15­1600s, lived in Europe – also contradicted Galen­ demonstrated function of circulatory system Middle ages 5­15AD, sciences declined – often referred to as the Dark Ages No dissections allowed, many anatomy texts burned Humoralism Ancient theory that health and illness result from a balance or imbalance of bodily humors (fluids) Attributed to Hippocrates, but he didn’t really invent theory Lasted ~2500 years Renaissance 14­16 AD “age of enlightenment” First started to preserve cadavers Many important developments in this time period 20th century Anatomy is still developing via technology in 2 ways Microscopic (micro = small, macro = large) Radiologic Hierarchy of Organization Hierarchy of Organization Gross Anatomy Gross Anatomy Macroscopic Anatomical position Common visual reference point Standing with feet together, eyes forward, palms anterior, thumbs out Right and left refer to sides belonging to patient Directional Terms Directional Terms Directional terms: Superior (cranial)/Inferior (caudal) Anterior (ventral)/Posterior (dorsal) Medial/Lateral Superficial/Deep Regional Terms Regional Terms Regional terms: Specific body areas Axial (Head, neck, and trunk) Appendicular (Limbs) Body Planes and Sections Body Planes and Sections Transverse (horizontal, axial) Coronal (frontal) divides body into anterior and posterior sections FUNDAMENTAL coronal plane goes right through middle Sagittal (watch spelling!) divides body into superior and inferior sections FUNDAMENTAL transverse plane goes right through middle, but there are several other transverse planes that can be seen divides body into right and left sections (parasagittal) FUNDAMENTAL sagittal (midsagittal) plane goes right down middle Section bears name of plane (e.g., sagittal plane produces sagittal section) Oblique = diagonal between horiz./vert. (rarely used) What type of section? What type of section? What type of section? What type of section? What type of section? What type of section? Body Cavities Body Cavities Dorsal body cavity Cranial Vertebral Ventral body cavity Thoracic 2 pleural, mediastinum (contains pericardial) Abdominopelvic Abdominal, pelvic Types of Membranes Types of Membranes Mucous = secrete MUCUS (spelling!), which is thick fluid that lubricates and protects Serous = thin, watery secretion, function is to lubricate, decrease friction ***Both line cavities­ mucous ones more likely found in tubes that enter/exit body, serous (known as serosa/­ae) found lining organs NOTE each has a parietal (outside) and visceral (inside) membrane Membranes Membranes All 3 of the following are serous membranes Pleura = surrounds lungs Pericardial = around heart Peritoneal = in abdominal cavities *There is usually a space between the visceral and parietal membranes (called cavity) Other Cavities Other Cavities Oral Nasal Orbital Middle ear Synovial (joints) Abdominal Quadrants Abdominal Quadrants Abdominal Regions Abdominal Regions Microscopic Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy Light microscope (beam of light) Lower magnification – shows cells Resolution is micrometers, which is 100­fold increase in resolution over naked eye (2 orders of magnitude) Electron microscope (beam of electrons) Resolution is nanometers 3 orders of magnitude better than light microscope Can see subcellular organelles, viruses Clinical Anatomy Clinical Anatomy X rays: use ionizing radiation (too much causes cancer) Penetrates soft tissue but not hard Good for examining bone and dense structures Fluoroscope = fluorescent screen Problems: 2D image, low resolution, can’t see soft tissue, repeated scans dangerous CT scans: stands for Computerized Axial Tomography (graph = pictures), get many transverse (axial) slides through regions Is 3D, higher resolution than xray Problems: radiation risk, not too good at soft tissue X­ray Image PET scan (positron emission tomography) MRI scans: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (but is also tomographic) Reads radioactive isotopes injected into body Isotopes decay and emit positrons, which lead to gamma ray production Sensors detect gamma rays and convert to electrical impulse Problems: low resolution, isotopes expensive No xrays involved, can perform multiple scans Uses STRONG magnetic field, radio waves (FM), and computer Has high resolution and can discriminate soft tissues Liquid helium cools coils to create field Radio waves cause protons to move out of line Problems: expensive, noisy, effects of strong magnetic field (?) Sonography (ultrasound) Image from MRI Image from MRI ...
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