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Unformatted text preview: Matt Hines Section 0102 CCJS105 ID Number: 110601142 Prior to the 20 th century, sociological factors were largely ignored by mainstream criminologists as an explanation for criminality. More common thought processes focused on the deviance of an individual as a function of the “lack of fear of deterrence, defective, individual genetics, or the psyche.” (Hagan 145) However, at the turn of the century, scholars influenced by the ‘Chicago School of Thought’ began to incorporate sociological ideas into their theories. An outgrowth of this new way of thinking is Edwin Sutherland’s Theory of Differential Association. The theory “indicates that individuals become predisposed toward criminality because of an excess of contact that advocate criminal behavior.” (Hagan 157) Largely influenced by Sutherland’s work, criminologist Ronald Acker proposed an extension to Sutherland’s theory. Acker “posits that four variables function to instigate and strengthen attitudes toward social behavior: Differential association, definitions, reinforcement, and modeling.” (Chappell and Differential association, definitions, reinforcement, and modeling....
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2011 for the course CCJS 105 taught by Professor Mcgoin during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.
- Fall '08