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3_Personality and Perception

3_Personality and Perception - Outline of Today’s Classes...

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Unformatted text preview: Outline of Today’s Classes Outline of Today Individual Differences Personality Perception & Judgment Personality: A Definition Personality: A Definition The unique and relatively stable patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals The Person­Situation Controversy Personality is an Illusion. Behavior depends upon the situation. versus Personality is real. People do exhibit stable personality over time. The Interactionist Perspective Behavior is a function of both personality and the situation. The “Big Five”Dimensions of Personality Personality Agreeableness Emotional Stability Conscientiousness Extroversion Openness to Experience Personality Dimensions of Interest to Managers The “Big Five”Dimensions of Personality Factor High Low Conscientiousness Careful, Responsible, Organized, Self-disciplined Irresponsible, Disorganized, Lack of Discipline, etc. Extroversion-Introversion Sociable, Talkative, Assertive, Active Retiring, Sober, Reserved, Cautious Agreeableness Good-natured, Gentle, Cooperative, Forgiving Irritable, Ruthless, Suspicious, Uncooperative Neuroticism Anxious, Depressed, Angry Emotional, Insecure Calm, Enthusiastic, Poised, Secure Openness to Experience Imaginitive, Creative, Intellectual, Willing to Change Insensitive, Narrow, Inflexible, Close-minded The Proactive Personality A personality trait reflecting the extent to which individuals seek to change the environment to suit their purposes and to capitalize on various opportunities. “You control your destiny” “What’s important is not what happens to me, but rather, How I react to what happens.” “Luck is when preparation meets opportunity” “Time to make the doughnuts” Early classes 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.27 3.18 Morning persons do better in early classes. Evening persons do better in late classes 3.0 Gra des Late Classes 2.9 3.07 2.8 2.78 2.7 2.6 2.5 Morning Students Evening Students Other Individual Differences Other Individual Differences Self­Efficacy Ability Intelligence Emotional Intelligence Values/Beliefs Perception Perceptual Differences: What do you see? 10 ? 11 Perception Perception Perception ­ The task of combining, integrating, and interpreting information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them. The McGurk Effect The McGurk Effect Four Stage Model Four Stage Model of Perception/Judgment The Five Senses Stimulus Attention Organization (accuracy) Interpretation Judgment Decisions and Behaviors Attention Attention The stage in the information processing cycle in which the individual decides what will be processed and what will be ignored. Attention Stage Attention Stage External Factors Affecting Attention Intensity Contrast Frequency Novelty Attention Stage Attention Stage External Factors Affecting Attention Intensity Contrast Frequency Novelty Internal Factors Affecting Attention Expectations Needs and Interests Organization Organization The stage in the information processing cycle in which many discrete bits of information are chunked into higher­level abstract concepts. Organization Stage Organization Stage Numerical Chunking Organization Stage Organization Stage Numerical Chunking Schema Organization Stage Organization Stage Numerical Chunking Schema Scripts Prototypes Stereotypes Halo Error Error The Leader Prototype The Leader Prototype 1. Intelligent 2. Outgoing 3. Understanding 4. Articulate 5. Aggressive 6. Determined 7. Industrious 8. Caring 9. Decisive 10. Dedicated 11. Educated 12. Well Dressed Interpretation Interpretation The stage in the information processing cycle in which meaning is attached to the relation among abstract concepts. Two Types of Attributions Two Types of Attributions I. INTERNAL I. INTERNAL a. ability or personality b. effort or misunderstanding II. EXTERNAL II. EXTERNAL a. management, the system, or just a tough job b. bad luck Kelley’s Theory of Causal Kelley Attribution Judgments of internal/external causes depend upon 3 factors: Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness Kelley’s Theory (cont.) Kelley Consensus ­ the extent to which other people behave in the same manner as the person we’re judging. Consistency ­ the extent to which the person we’re judging acts the same way at other times when in the same situation. Distinctiveness ­ the extent to which the person behaves in the same manner in other context Kelley’s Theory (cont.) Kelley External Attribution = High Consensus + High Consistency + High Distinctiveness Internal Attribution = Low Consensus + High Consistency + Low Distinctiveness Judgment Judgment The stage in the information processing cycle in which recalled information is weighted and aggregated to come up with a single overall judgment. Perceptual Biases Perceptual Biases The fundamental attribution error Halo Effect Similar­to­me effect First impression error Selective perception Seinfeld example Stereotypes Stereotypes Phenomena whereby we label an entire group as possessing a certain characteristic (often times a negative characteristic) Prejudice Prejudice Prejudice ­ Negative attitudes toward the members of specific groups, based solely on membership in those groups (I.e. age, race, gender) Discrimination ­ Behavior consistent with prejudicial attitudes Prejudice vs. Discrimination: A Key Distinction Prejudicial Attitude Belief Evaluative judgment Behavioral predisposition Negative stereotype Negative feelings Negative inclination (Group X is lazy) (Dislike (Disinterested lazy people) in hiring members of Group X) Behavior Discrimination Do not hire members of Group X 13 Consider the following situation: x x x x You are the vice president of GM’’s s You North American auto assembly plants. Demand for new cars is weak. This means you may have to shut down 3 plants, which would may mean the loss of 6,000 jobs. mean You are now considering these options: You Plan A - you definitely save 1 of 3 plants and 2,000 jobs. 2,000 Plan B - you have a 1/3 chance to save all 3 plants and 6,000 jobs, but a 2/3 chance to save none of the plants none • Plan C - you will definitely lose 2/3 of the plants and 4,000 jobs. plants • Plan D - you have a 2/3 chance to lose all 3 plants, but a 1/3 chance to lose no plants and no jobs. “Loss Aversion” “Certain” Outcomes: “Risky” Outcomes: Plan A = Plan C Plan B = Plan D Types of “Frames” Can Evoke the Loss Aversion Bias: “Gain” (Plans A & B) versus “Loss” (Plans C & D) Overcoming Biases in Perception Overcoming Biases in Perception 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Not overlooking external causes of behavior Examine assumptions; Identify and confront personal stereotypes Evaluate people on objective facts Avoid rash judgment Diversify….broaden your experiences Multisource feedback (360) Awareness (self & other) Seek data Tomorrow: Tomorrow: Case of the Floundering Expatriate Why isn’t Bert Donaldson having more success in his new position at Argos Diesel Europe? How have cultural differences contributed to Donaldson’s difficulties? What would you do now if you were CEO Frank Waterhouse? ...
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