4_Motivation

4_Motivation - Topic: Motivation (Next Two Topic:...

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Unformatted text preview: Topic: Motivation (Next Two Topic: Motivation (Next Two Classes) Today: Motivating people in organizations Article: Rewarding A, while hoping for B Mid­term will be available in Katalyst on Wed. (team assignments) Next Class Motivation (cont.) Lumens/Absorb Teams @ Crutchfield Chemical Case Study Misalignment of Goals and Rewards Misalignment of Goals and Rewards We hope for. . . But we often reward ... long-term growth; environmental responsibility quarterly earnings teamwork individual effort setting challenging "stretch" objectives achieving goals; "making the numbers" downsizing; rightsizing; delayering; restructuring adding staff; adding budget; adding Hay points commitment to total quality shipping on schedule, even with defects candor; surfacing bad news early reporting good news, whether it's true or not; agreeing with the boss, whether or not (s)he's right Motivation: Its Basic Components Arousal Direction Maintenance Goal Persist Desire to make a good impression rk ent wo im Compl Work extra hard Do spec ial favo rs Persist Good impression made Persist 3 Maslow’s Hierarchy Maslow Self­Actualization Esteem Love Safety Physiological What can organizations do to What can organizations do to ensure… Needs are met? How will you know? Positively Valent Rewards? Contingencies of Reinforcement: Stimulus Presented Desirability or Withdrawn of Stimulus Presented Strength of Response Example Positive reinforcement Increases Praise from a supervisor encourages continuing the praised behavior Unpleasant Punishment Withdrawn Pleasant Name of Contingency Decreases Criticism from a supervisor discourages enacting the punished behavior Pleasant Decreases Failing to praise a helpful act reduces the odds of helping in the future Increases Future criticism is avoided by doing whatever the supervisor wants Extinction Unpleasant Negative reinforcement 11 When are we motivated? When are we motivated? Are people ALWAYS motivated? Alternatively… Are people sometimes unmotivated? A Diagnostic Model of Motivation and Performance Step 1 Valence Step 2 Expectancy Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Ability Desire to perform Motivation Instrumentality Performance Satisfaction Accuracy of role perceptions Equity of of reward reward Step 1. The Desire to Perform as a Function of Valence and Instrumentality Valence Desire to perform Instrumentality Step 2. Level of Effort as a Function of Step 2. Level of Effort as a Function of Desire and Expectancy Expectancy Desire to perform Motivation Step 3. Performance as a Function of Step 3. Performance as a Function of Effort, Accuracy of Role Perceptions, and Ability Ability Motivation Performance Accuracy of role perceptions Expectancy Theory: An Overview Effort Skills and abilities Expectancy Performance X Instrumentality Rewards Motivation Job Performance X Valence of Rewards Role perceptions and opportunities 16 What Is a “GOAL”? What Is a 1. Goals Imply Action: “to improve” “to reduce” 2. Goals Are Specific & Quantitative: “to improve teaching ratings 15%” “to reduce absence 10%” What Is a “GOAL”? What Is a 3. Goals Have a Target Date “to improve teaching ratings 15% by the end of this year” “to reduce absence 10% in six months” 4. Goals Are Usually Hierarchical “Win Teaching Award in two years” “to improve teaching ratings 15% by the end of this year” “have two classes videotaped” next month Opportunities to set goals? Opportunities to set goals? Life Goals – Top 10 List Life Goals – Top 10 List Motivation by Goal Setting: Motivation by Goal Setting: 1. A clear vision is critical: x assess resources that are available x recognize very diverse needs and wants in the organization 2. Commitment is essential: x give feedback (so that one can “keep score”) x be supportive x difficult goals must still be achievable x encourage risk­taking by not punishing failure to achieve difficult goals Motivation by Goal Setting: Motivation by Goal Setting: 3. How to set goals? a.) assign them b.) participation with boss c.) self­set (delegated by boss) x all of the above work x the more experienced & the more proven, the more employee control over goals Feedback: An Essential Aspect of Goal Setting Mean Group Effectiveness Index High 500 400 Feedback + goal setting + incentives (530) Feedback + goalsetting (520) Feedback and goal setting improved group effectiveness even more Feedback (380) 300 200 Baseline (before feedback) (108) Feedback improved group effectiveness 100 Low 1-9 10-14 15-19 Time (in months) 20-24 12 Effect of Need for Achievement and Effect of Need for Achievement and Type of Goal on Goal Commitment GOAL COMMITMENT High Self-set goals Assigned goals Low Low High NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT Step 4. Satisfaction as a Function of Step 4. Satisfaction as a Function of Performance and Equity of Rewards Satisfaction Performance Equity of rewards Equity Theory Equity Theory Social Comparison Process: People Compare Self to Others with Respect to Ratio of Outcomes to Inputs O Individual I Individual O Referent Other I Referent Other Concerned with Fairness of Reward EQUITY THEORY: AN OVERVIEW Person Person Social A B Comparison Overpayment inequity for Person A Underpayment inequity for Person A Equitable payment for Person A Greater Outcomes Than Inputs Outcomes Angry Inputs Guilty Outcomes Inputs Angry Outcomes Inputs Satisfied Less Than Equal To Outcomes Inputs Guilty Guilty Outcomes Inputs Satisfied Underpayment inequity for Person B Overpayment inequity for Person B Equitable payment for Person B 13 Are Executives Overpaid? Are Executives Overpaid? POSSIBLE REACTIONS TO INEQUITY: A SUMMARY TYPE OF REACTION Type of Inequity Behavioral (what you can do is...) Psychological (what you can think (what is...) is...) Convince yourself that your Overpayment inequity Raise your inputs (e.g., work harder), or lower your outcomes outcomes are deserved (e.g. work through a paid based on your inputs (e.g., vacation) rationalize that you work harder than others and so you deserve more pay) Underpayment inequity Lower your inputs (e.g., reduce effort), or raise your outcomes e.g., get a raise in pay) Convince yourself that others’ inputs are really higher than your own (e.g., rationalize that the comparison worker is really more qualified and so deserves higher outcomes) 14 Organizational Justice Organizational Justice Distributive Justice ­ fairness of outcomes (I.e. pay equity). Procedural Justice ­ fairness of procedures. Interactional Justice ­ degree individual treated with dignity and respect. Theft Rate percentage of unaccounted for loss of property Employee Theft: A Reaction to Employee Theft: A Reaction to Underpayment Employees of the factories in which there was a pay cut, inconsiderate explanation Employees of the factories in which there was a pay cut, considerate explanation Employees of the factories in which there was no pay cut 9 Employee theft was greatest in factories whose employees experienced a cut in their pay and inconsiderate explanation. 8 7 6 5 4 Theft rates were identical before pay was cut in one of them. Theft rates were identical after pay was restored to normal levels. 3 2 1 0 Before Pay Cut During Pay Cut After 15 Pay Cut Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment: A Comparison Standard Job Enlarged Job Job enlargement adds more tasks at the same level of responsibility. Task 1 (low) (high) Task 1 Task 2 (low) (low) Number of Tasks (high) (horizontal job loading) Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 (low) Level of Responsibility (vertical job loading) Level of Responsibility (vertical job loading) (high) Level of Responsibility (vertical job loading) (high) Number of Tasks (horizontal job loading) Enhanced Job Task 1 Task 2 (high) Job enrichment adds more responsibility to the same number of tasks. (low) (low) Number of Tasks (high) (horizontal job loading) 18 The Job Characteristics Model: Its Basic Components PERSONAL AND WORK OUTCOMES CORE JOB DIMENSIONS CRITICAL PSYCHOLOGY STATES Skill variety Task identity Task significance Experienced meaningfulness of the work Autonomy Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work High-quality work performance Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities Low absenteeism and turnover Feedback High internal work motivation High satisfaction with the work Employee growth need strength 19 Enriching Jobs: Some Suggestions From the Job Characteristics Model Principles of Job Description Core Job Dimensions Incorporated 1. Combines jobs enabling worker to perform the entire job Skill variety Task identity 2. Establishes client relationships allowing providers of a service to meet the recipients Skill variety Autonomy Feedback 3. Load jobs vertically allowing greater responsibility an control over work Autonomy 4. Open feedback channels giving workers knowledge Feedback of the results of their work 20 Lumens & Absorb Teams at Lumens & Absorb Teams at Crutchfield Chemical 1. 2. 3. Compare and contrast Lumen and Absorb teams at Crutchfield Evaluate the process for diagnosing problems at Crutchfield? Were the methods used by Joanna McKinty effective? Are there other approaches you would recommend? You have just received McKinty’s analysis. If you were Paul Burke, what actions would you take (both short term and long term) to motivate teams to be more creative and more productive? Be specific. ...
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