Unformatted text preview: Outline of Topics this Week
Outline of Topics this Week Today:
Wrap up Motivation (Fairness, Job Design)
Groups and Teams in Organizations Wed:
Groups/Teams continued Team Cases Due by Friday 5pm 1 electronic copy per team (homework tab in Catalyst)
1 hard copy (place under door in 4043 Rawls or give to Brenda Allie Why Are Groups Important?
Why Are Groups Important? 1. For managers & executives: 20 (or more) hours /week are spent in meetings
2. For lower level employees: increasing use of teams
BUT...... Fortune Magazine survey of “time wasters” listed these: #1 group meetings #2 incoming phone calls #3 paper work #4 travel A Teams/Group: Its Defining A Teams/Group: Its Defining Characteristics
Two or more people
in social interaction Group Group has stable
structure Members share
common goals Members perceive
themselves as being
a group When Are Teams Best?
When Are Teams Best? Task fits with team advantages
Employees are prepared to team
Work culture supports teams
Developmental goal Group Decision Making: Advantages and Disadvantages
resources Waste time Specialization
of labor Group conflict Decision
acceptance Intimidation by
group leaders Advantages Disadvantages
groups be used
to make decisions? 10 In Class Activity:
In Class Activity: On a sheet of paper, briefly describe a successful group project, and an unsuccessful group project that you have been on. For the successful project, list the 4 elements (in order of importance), that you feel were most important in making that group work. Similarly, for the unsuccessful project, list the 4 elements that you feel contributed the most to the group’s failure or lack of success. Class Discussion Group Effectiveness
Effectiveness Capacity for
Cooperation IPO Model of Teams
IPO Model of Teams
Attributes Interaction Task
Characteristics Identity Technology Influence Contextual
Factors Productivity Maintenance Input Task Characteristics
Input Ability and skill requirements
Levels of cooperation required
Complexity of the task
Strategic importance to firm
Political implications of task Input Team Attributes:
Input Team Composition Size of team
Diversity of interests/goals/values
Compatibility Team Process
Team Process Interaction Communication/Information Sharing Openness to others Loafing Identity Cohesion “We” vs. “I” Influence Normative (Norms) Informational Minority/Majority PROCESS LOSS:
Small Large Group Size Interaction
Social Loafing: A definition The tendency for group members to exert less individual effort on an additive task as the size of the group increases. SOCIAL LOAFING: ITS GENERAL FORM
Amount of Effort Exerted by Each Individual (high) The more people working on
a group task, the smaller the
contribution made by any one
member of the group will be. (low)
Alone Small groups
People Working Together in Groups
13 Social Loafing: Is It a Universal Phenomenon
Social Loafing: Is It a Universal Phenomenon Perform
alone Standardized Performance Measure Good 26 In the collectivistic cultures of China
and Israel, people performed better Poor
performance 24 as part of a group than alone.
20.79 20 18 24.66 In the United States,
better alone than in
groups (i.e., social
loafing occurred). 18.49 16.57 16 Peoples Republic
of China Israel
Country United States Influence: Norms
Influence: Norms Shared expectations about observable behavior
Embody evaluation of behavior
Operate within a range of behavior
Situational boundaries The Five Stages of Group Development Stage 1
to know each
to know each
round rules Stage 2
Storming Stage 3
come to resist
come to resist
close relationcontrol by
close relationcontrol by
hostility Stage 4
Performing Stage 5
Adjourning Groups may
work toward their goals or
their goals or
getting their because membecause memjobs done
bers leave 6 Interaction: Group Cohesiveness
Its Causes and Consequences
Consequences Causes • Severe initiation
• External threats
• Lots of time together
• Small groups
• History of success Positive
• Enjoy group membership
• Participate in group activities
• Accept group’s goals
• Low absenteeism and turnover
• Lose sight of goals (groupthink)
• May work against
organizational interests 9 Cohesion & Performance Performance Norms Cohesiveness
High Low High High
productivity Low Low
productivity Moderate to
low productivity Group vs. Individual Performance on a Complex Task: Empirical Evidence
individual (74.2) Best
individual On conceptually complex tasks,
groups performed better than either
the average individual or even the
best individual in the group. (82.6) (89.9) Group (low) 70
Mean Test Performance 90
11 Group Decisions: When Are They Superior to Individual Decisions?
Problems Group members are
have complementary skills.
Ideas may be freely communicated. Good ideas
are accepted. Does anyone in the group
have the correct answer?
Will the group members
accept the correct answer? Group performs
as well as the
best individual No Groups are superior
to even the best
individuals Group performs worse
than the best individual 12 Symptoms and Consequences of Symptoms and Consequences of Groupthink
Symptoms of Groupthink
1. Illusion of invulnerability
2. Belief in group’s morality
3. Collective rationalization
4. Stereotyping outsiders
6. Illusion of unanimity
7. Exerting pressure on dissenters
8. Emergence of mindguards Defective Decision Making
1. Poor information search
2. Incomplete survey of
3. Failure to examine risks of the
most preferred alternatives
4. Failure to reappraise
5. Selective bias in processing
information at hand
Unsound decision Overcoming “Groupthink”
Overcoming 1. Consult trusted outsiders. Report back.
2. Invite outside experts in to challenge the group.
3. Have a “devils advocate” for every meeting. (Rotate this role among members). Overcoming “Groupthink”(cont)
Overcoming 4. Hold a “second chance” meeting.
5. Leader should withhold own preferences. (Problems: may widen the gulf between leaders and members. May cause mistrust. May set a bad example).
6. Use “parallel, competing” groups. (Problems: may lead to security leaks. May result in too much competition and conflictlosing focus on problem).
Recall, other structured decision techniques… Leading Virtual Teams?
Leading Virtual Teams? What is a virtual team?
What are the challenges of leading and working in a virtual team? How can you do so effectively? HBR Article: Nut Island Effect
HBR Article: Nut Island Effect A review: Follow these 12 steps to A review: Follow these 12 steps to more efficient and effective meetings: Prepare a meeting agenda.
Distribute the agenda in advance.
Consult with participants before the meeting.
Get participants to go over the agenda.
Establish specific time parameters.
Maintain focused discussion.
Encourage and support participation of all members.
Maintain a balanced style.
Encourage the clash of ideas.
Discourage the clash of personalities.
Be an effective listener.
Bring proper closure. Successful Teams
1. Have basic trust among members
2. Have open & frequent communications
3. Focus on the group’s goal
4. Are willing to depend on others
5. Are willing to be influenced by others
6. Are able to get consensus on decisions Foundations of Teamwork
Foundations of Teamwork
TEAMWORK COMMITMENT LOVE TRUST The TEAM Concept
The TEAM Concept T
View Full Document
- Fall '11
- Decision Making, Division of Labour