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5_Teams in Organizations

5_Teams in Organizations - Outline of Topics this Week...

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Unformatted text preview: Outline of Topics this Week Outline of Topics this Week Today: Wrap up Motivation (Fairness, Job Design) Groups and Teams in Organizations Wed: Groups/Teams continued Team Cases Due by Friday 5pm 1 electronic copy per team (homework tab in Catalyst) 1 hard copy (place under door in 4043 Rawls or give to Brenda Allie Why Are Groups Important? Why Are Groups Important? 1. For managers & executives: 20 (or more) hours /week are spent in meetings 2. For lower level employees: increasing use of teams BUT...... Fortune Magazine survey of “time wasters” listed these: #1­ group meetings #2­ incoming phone calls #3­ paper work #4­ travel A Teams/Group: Its Defining A Teams/Group: Its Defining Characteristics Two or more people in social interaction Group Group has stable structure Members share common goals Members perceive themselves as being a group When Are Teams Best? When Are Teams Best? Task fits with team advantages Employees are prepared to team Work culture supports teams Developmental goal Group Decision Making: Advantages and Disadvantages Pooling of resources Waste time Specialization of labor Group conflict Decision acceptance Intimidation by group leaders Advantages Disadvantages Should groups be used to make decisions? 10 In Class Activity: In Class Activity: On a sheet of paper, briefly describe a successful group project, and an unsuccessful group project that you have been on. For the successful project, list the 4 elements (in order of importance), that you feel were most important in making that group work. Similarly, for the unsuccessful project, list the 4 elements that you feel contributed the most to the group’s failure or lack of success. Class Discussion Group Effectiveness Group Effectiveness Quality Production Output Quantity Member Satisfaction Criteria for Group Effectiveness Capacity for Cooperation IPO Model of Teams IPO Model of Teams INPUTS Member Attributes PROCESSING OUTCOMES Team/Group Attributes Interaction Task Characteristics Identity Technology Influence Contextual Factors Productivity Maintenance Input Task Characteristics Input Ability and skill requirements Levels of cooperation required Complexity of the task Strategic importance to firm Political implications of task Input Team Attributes: Input Team Composition Size of team KSA’s represented Diversity of interests/goals/values Compatibility Team Process Team Process Interaction Communication/Information Sharing Openness to others Loafing Identity Cohesion “We” vs. “I” Influence Normative (Norms) Informational Minority/Majority PROCESS LOSS: PROCESS LOSS: Group Productivity High Potential Productivity Process Loss Actual Productivity Low Small Large Group Size Interaction Interaction Social Loafing: A definition The tendency for group members to exert less individual effort on an additive task as the size of the group increases. SOCIAL LOAFING: ITS GENERAL FORM Amount of Effort Exerted by Each Individual (high) The more people working on a group task, the smaller the contribution made by any one member of the group will be. (low) On Person Working Alone Small groups Large groups People Working Together in Groups 13 Social Loafing: Is It a Universal Phenomenon Social Loafing: Is It a Universal Phenomenon Perform in groups Perform alone Standardized Performance Measure Good 26 In the collectivistic cultures of China performance and Israel, people performed better Poor performance 24 as part of a group than alone. 23.83 23.18 22 20.79 20 18 24.66 In the United States, people performed better alone than in groups (i.e., social loafing occurred). 18.49 16.57 16 Peoples Republic of China Israel Country United States Influence: Norms Influence: Norms Shared expectations about observable behavior Embody evaluation of behavior Operate within a range of behavior Have intensity Situational boundaries The Five Stages of Group Development Stage 1 Forming Members get Members get to know each to know each other and other and seek to seek to establish establish ggroundrules round rules Stage 2 Storming Stage 3 Norming Members Members work together, Members work together, Members developing come to resist developing come to resist close relationcontrol by close relationcontrol by ships and group leaders ships and group leaders feelings of and show feelings of and show camaraderie hostility camaraderie hostility Stage 4 Performing Stage 5 Adjourning Groups may Groups may Group Group disband, either disband, either members members after meeting after meeting work toward work toward their goals or their goals or getting their getting their because membecause memjobs done jobs done bers leave bers leave 6 Interaction: Group Cohesiveness Its Causes and Consequences Consequences Causes • Severe initiation • External threats • Lots of time together • Small groups • History of success Positive • Enjoy group membership • Participate in group activities • Accept group’s goals • Low absenteeism and turnover Group Cohesiveness Negative • Lose sight of goals (groupthink) • May work against organizational interests 9 Cohesion & Performance Performance Norms Cohesiveness High Low High High productivity Moderate productivity Low Low productivity Moderate to low productivity Group vs. Individual Performance on a Complex Task: Empirical Evidence Average individual (74.2) Best Best individual individual On conceptually complex tasks, groups performed better than either the average individual or even the best individual in the group. (82.6) (89.9) Group (low) 70 80 Mean Test Performance 90 (high) 11 Group Decisions: When Are They Superior to Individual Decisions? Simple Problems Complex Problems Group members are heterogeneous. Members have complementary skills. Ideas may be freely communicated. Good ideas are accepted. Does anyone in the group have the correct answer? Yes Will the group members accept the correct answer? Group performs as well as the best individual No Groups are superior to even the best individuals Group performs worse than the best individual 12 Symptoms and Consequences of Symptoms and Consequences of Groupthink Symptoms of Groupthink 1. Illusion of invulnerability 2. Belief in group’s morality 3. Collective rationalization 4. Stereotyping outsiders 5. Self­censorship 6. Illusion of unanimity 7. Exerting pressure on dissenters 8. Emergence of mindguards Defective Decision Making 1. Poor information search 1. Poor 2. Incomplete survey of 2. alternatives alternatives 3. Failure to examine risks of the 3. most preferred alternatives most 4. Failure to reappraise 4. alternatives initially discarded discarded 5. Selective bias in processing 5. information at hand information Unsound decision Overcoming “Groupthink” Overcoming 1. Consult trusted outsiders. Report back. 2. Invite outside experts in to challenge the group. 3. Have a “devils advocate” for every meeting. (Rotate this role among members). Overcoming “Groupthink”(cont) Overcoming 4. Hold a “second chance” meeting. 5. Leader should withhold own preferences. (Problems: may widen the gulf between leaders and members. May cause mistrust. May set a bad example). 6. Use “parallel, competing” groups. (Problems: may lead to security leaks. May result in too much competition and conflict­­losing focus on problem). Recall, other structured decision techniques… Leading Virtual Teams? Leading Virtual Teams? What is a virtual team? What are the challenges of leading and working in a virtual team? How can you do so effectively? HBR Article: Nut Island Effect HBR Article: Nut Island Effect A review: Follow these 12 steps to A review: Follow these 12 steps to more efficient and effective meetings: Prepare a meeting agenda. Distribute the agenda in advance. Consult with participants before the meeting. Get participants to go over the agenda. Establish specific time parameters. Maintain focused discussion. Encourage and support participation of all members. Maintain a balanced style. Encourage the clash of ideas. Discourage the clash of personalities. Be an effective listener. Bring proper closure. Successful Teams Successful Teams 1. Have basic trust among members 2. Have open & frequent communications 3. Focus on the group’s goal 4. Are willing to depend on others 5. Are willing to be influenced by others 6. Are able to get consensus on decisions Foundations of Teamwork Foundations of Teamwork TEAMWORK COMMITMENT LOVE TRUST The TEAM Concept The TEAM Concept T E A M ogether veryone ccomplishes ore ...
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