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6_Conflict and Negotiation

6_Conflict and Negotiation - Outline of Today’s Class...

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Unformatted text preview: Outline of Today’s Class Outline of Today Conflict & Negotiation Case Study: Thomas Green Conflict: A mixed bag Conflict: A mixed bag Positive effects of Conflict 1. Brings hidden problems into the open 2. Motivates mutual understanding 3. Consideration of new ideas 4. Can lead to better decisions 5. Can enhance group loyalty 6. Can enhance organizational commitment Negative Effects of Confict 1. Interferes w/communication 1. Interferes 2. Creates negative emotions 2. Creates 3. Diverts attention from 3. productive efforts productive 4. Can cause participative leader 4. to become authoritarian to 5. Encourages negative 5. stereotyping stereotyping 6. Can foster group-think-narrow Can minded loyalty minded Conflict Defined Conflict Defined The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party. Task vs. Socioemotional Conflict Task vs. Socioemotional Conflict Task­related conflict Conflict is aimed at issue, not parties Helps recognize problems, identify solutions, and understand the issues better Potentially healthy and valuable Socioemotional conflict Conflict viewed as a personal attack Introduces perceptual biases Distorts information processing Thomas Green Thomas Green What are the work styles and personalities of Thomas Green and Frank Davis? How do the actions of Thomas Green differ from the expectations of Frank Davis? What is your analysis of Thomas Green’s actions and performance his first five months on the job? What mistakes did he make? Are there any possible underlying agendas for Davis? McDonald? What actions, if any, would you take if you were Thomas Green? Sources of Conflict Incompatible Incompatible Goals • One party’s goals perceived to interfere with other’s goals Diversity Diversity (heterogeneity) • Different values/beliefs • Explains cross-cultural and generational conflict Task Task Interdependence Interdependence • Conflict increases with interdependence • Higher risk that parties interfere with each other more Sources of Conflict (con’t) Scarce Scarce Resources Resources Ambiguous Rules Ambiguous Communication Communication Problems Problems • Motivates competition for the resource • Creates uncertainty, threatens goals • Without rules, people rely on politics • Make up own rules • • • • Increases stereotyping Reduces motivation to communicate Escalates conflict when arrogant E.g. Lean virtual teams Conflict Management Styles (high) Distribution Distribution Competition Compromise (low) Collaboration (high) Integration Avoidance Accommodation (low) 8 Conflict Resolution Conflict Resolution Structural approaches Superordinate goals Reduce differences Better communication Reduce interdependence Increase resources Clarify rules & procedures Negotiation 3rd­party intervention Emphasizing Superordinate Goals Emphasizing Superordinate Goals Emphasizing common objectives rather than conflicting sub­goals Reduces goal incompatibility and differentiation Is there a unifying vision? Ed Lallo Reducing Differentiation Reducing Differentiation Remove sources of different values and beliefs Move employees around to different jobs, departments, and regions Other ways to reduce differentiation: Common dress code/status Common work experiences Ed Lallo Better Better Communication/Understanding Employees understand and appreciate each other’s views through communication Informal gatherings Formal dialogue sessions Teambuilding activities Other Ways to Manage Conflict Other Ways to Manage Conflict Reduce Task Interdependence Dividing shared resources Combine tasks Use buffers Increase Resources Duplicate resources Clarify Rules and Procedures Stage IV: Behavior and Conflict Intensity Stage IV: Behavior and Conflict Intensity Annihilatory Conflict Overt efforts to destroy the other party Aggressive physical attacks Threats and ultimatums Assertive verbal attacks Overt questioning or challenging of others No Conflict Minor disagreements or misunderstandings Bargaining (Negotiation) Bargaining (Negotiation) A process in which two or more parties in a dispute exchange offers, counteroffers, and concessions in an effort to attain a mutually acceptable agreement Two Types of Negotiating Strategies Bargaining Characteristics Distributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining • Available Resources • Fixed Amount • Variable Amount • Primary Motivations • I Win, You Lose • I Win, You Win • Primary Interests • Opposed • Congruent • Focus of Relationships • Short-Term • Long-Term The Bargaining Zone The Bargaining Zone Party A’s Aspiration Range Party A’s Target Point Settlement Party B’s Resistance Point Range Party B’s Aspiration Range Party A’s Resistance Point Party B’s Target Point TECHNIQUES FOR REACHING INTEGRATIVE AGREEMENTS Types of Agreement Description Broadening the pie Available resources are broadened so that both sides can obtain their major goals. Nonspecific compensation One side gets what it wants; the other is compensated on an unrelated issue. Logrolling Each party makes concessions on low-priority issues in exchange for concessions on issues that It values more highly. Cost cutting One party gets what it desires, and the costs to the other party are reduced or eliminated. Bridging Neither party gets its initial demands, but a new option that satisfies the major interests of both sides is developed. 12 Mediator Third­Party Third­Party Negotiation Arbitrator Consultant ...
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