7_Leadership

7_Leadership - Outline of Leadership Classes Outline of...

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Unformatted text preview: Outline of Leadership Classes Outline of Leadership Classes Leadership: theory and application What is leadership? What role does power and influence play? How do I influence others? What do great leaders possess? What theories best help me to understand leadership? How do I decide as a leader? What is Leadership? What is Leadership? The process by which an agent induces a subordinate to behave in a desired manner (Bennis, 1959). Directing and coordinating the work of group members (Fiedler, 1967). An interpersonal relation in which others comply because they want to, not because they have to (Merton, 1969). Transforming followers, creating visions of the goals that may be attained, and articulating for the followers the ways to attain those goals (Bass, 1098; Tichy & Devanna, 1986). 1­2 What is Leadership? (continued) What is Leadership? (continued) The process of influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals (Roach & Behling, 1984). Actions that focus resources to create desirable opportunities (Campbell, 1991). The leader’s job is to create conditions for the team to be effective (Ginnett, 1996). The ends of leadership involve getting results through others, and the means of leadership involve the ability to build cohesive, goal­oriented teams. Good leaders are those who build teams to get results across a variety of situations (Hogan, Curphy & Hogan, 1994). 1­3 Influence, Power, & Politics Influence, Power, & Politics Social Influence ­ attempts to influence others’ behavior. Power ­ the capacity to change the behavior or attitudes of others in a desired manner. Politics ­ unauthorized use of power that enhances one’s own or one’s group’s personal interests. Types of Social Influence Social Influence Normative Individuals comply because of social pressures exerted by inividuals or groups (type of conformity). Informational Individuals are influenced due to their belief that the information others hold is accurate (form of persuasion). 4 Types of Individual Power: A Summary Individual Power Position Power • • • • Legitimate power Reward power Coercive power Information power Personal Power • • • • Rational persuasion Referent power Expert power Charisma 4 Video: Sgt. Hulka Video: Sgt. Hulka Influence Tactics Reason Friendliness Sanctions Coalition Higher Authority Bargaining Assertiveness Leadership at 30,000 Feet Leadership at 30,000 Feet The Interactional Framework for Analyzing Leadership Leader Personality, Position, Expertise, etc. Followers Values, Norms, Cohesiveness, Etc. Task, Environment, Etc. Situation Leader Attributes and Behaviors Universally Leader Attributes and Behaviors Universally Viewed as Positive Trustworthy Positive Intelligent Just Dynamic Decisive Honest Motive arouser Effective bargainer Foresighted Confidence builder Win-win problem solver Plans ahead Motivational Administratively skilled Encouraging Dependable Communicative Informed Coordinator Team builder Excellence oriented Leader Attributes and Behaviors Universally Leader Attributes and Behaviors Universally Viewed as Negative Loner Nonexplicit Asocial Egocentric Noncooperative Ruthless Irritable Dictatorial Video: CEO Challenge Video: CEO Challenge Do Leaders need to have job knowledge in order to be successful leaders? Can a “non­technical” person lead a high tech firm? Competency Perspective Limitations Competency Perspective Limitations Leadership potential, not performance Implies a universal approach Still need to develop leader skills from these competencies But some competencies might not be valuable in all situations Some traits are subjective Supports implicit leadership theory Leadership & Management Kotter (1990) Major activities of management and leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper. Leadership and Management Leadership and Management Leaders Managers Innovate Administer Develop Maintain Inspire Control Long-term view Short-term view Ask what and why Ask how and when Originate Initiate Challenge the status quo Accept the status quo Do the right things Do things right 2­15 Good to Great Good to Great Kimberly­Clark Gillette Colman Mockler Abbott Labs Darwin Smith George Cain Walgreens Charles “Cork” Walgreen III d oo G t rea G GTG­Methodology GTG­Methodology The Level 5 Hierarchy The Level 5 Hierarchy Level 5: Level 5 Executive Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical combination of personal humility plus professional will Level 4: Effective Leader Catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision; stimulates the group to high performance standards Level 3: Competent Manager Organizes people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives Level 2: Contributing Team Member Contributes to the achievement of group objectives; works effectively with others in a group setting Level 1: Highly Capable Individual Makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills, and good work habits Whose on your Bus? Whose on your Bus? Right people? Right positions? Position flexibility? Who else can drive the bus? Sustainability? Krannert Maxims and Theories of Maxims and Theories of Leadership Maxims are personal opinions that can give leaders valuable advice about leadership. A leadership theory is a framework for conceptualizing relationships between variables and guiding research toward a fuller understanding of phenomena. Maxims: Wooden’s Pyramid of Success Maxims: Wooden Leader Behavior: Two Basic Dimensions (The Ohio State Studies) Low concern for production and High concern for people Consideration High High concern for production and High concern for people Low High Initiating Structure Low concern for production and Low concern for people High concern for production and Low concern for people Low 6 Leader Behavioral Perspective Leader Behavioral Perspective People­oriented behaviors Showing mutual trust and respect Concern for employee needs Desire to look out for employee welfare Task­oriented behaviors Assign specific tasks Ensure employees follow rules Set “stretch goals” to achieve performance capacity Leader & Follower Leader & Follower Leader­Member Exchange ­ Leader devotes greatest attention to those members in the “in­group”. ­ Those in in­group are favored; those in out­group aredisfavored. Attribution Approach ­ Leader focuses on helping subordinate when poor performance attributed to internal causes. ­ Leader focuses on environment when poor performance attributed to external causes. Charismatic Leadership Transformational Leadership Charismatic and Transformational Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Charismatic leaders are passionate, driven individuals who are able to paint a compelling vision of the future. The combination of a compelling vision, heightened emotional levels, and strong personal attachments often compels followers to put forth greater effort to meet organizational or societalchallenges. All transformational leaders are charismatic, but not all charismatic leaders are transformational. 13­25 Transformational Leadership Elements Creating a Strategic Vision Communicating the Vision Transformational Transformational Leadership Building Commitment Modeling Modeling the Vision the Full Range: Transformational Full Range: Transformational Inspirational Motivation – Leaders who communicate high expectations to followers inspiring followers through motivation to commitment and engagement in shared vision of the organization. Leaders use symbols & emotional appeals to focus group members to achieve more than self­interest; team spirit promoted Individualized Consideration –Leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully to the needs of followers. Leader’s act as coaches and advisors encouraging self­actualization Intellectual Stimulation ­ Stimulates followers to be creative and innovative. Challenge their own beliefs and values. Leader encourages followers to try new approaches and develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues Full Range: Transactional Full Range: Transactional Transactional Leadership – Leaders do not individualize the needs of subordinates nor focus on their personal development. Exchange things of value with subordinates to further both’s agendas. Managing. Dimensions include: Contingent Rewards – The exchange process between leaders and followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards Management by Exception (MBE) ­ Leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and negative reinforcement MBE (Active) Watches follower closely to identify mistakes/rule violations MBE (Passive)Intervenes only after standards have not been met or problems have arisen Full Range: Transformational Full Range: Transformational Inspirational Motivation – Leaders who communicate high expectations to followers inspiring followers through motivation to commitment and engagement in shared vision of the organization. Leaders use symbols & emotional appeals to focus group members to achieve more than self­interest; team spirit promoted Individualized Consideration –Leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully to the needs of followers. Leader’s act as coaches and advisors encouraging self­actualization Intellectual Stimulation ­ Stimulates followers to be creative and innovative. Challenge their own beliefs and values. Leader encourages followers to try new approaches and develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues Full Range: Transformational Full Range: Transformational Idealized Influence – Leaders are admired and respected. Followers wish to emulate and identify with leader. Leaders who respect individual and puts followers needs above his/her own. Leaders shares risks with followers and follows principles of fairness and ethical decision­making. There are two dimensions here: Attributed and Behaviors Idealized Influence (Attributed ) – leader instills pride in others because of their association with him/her. Goes beyond self­interest for good of group. Acts in ways that builds others respect of leader. Displays confidence Idealized Influence (Behaviors ) – Discusses his or her most important beliefs and values. Emphasizes having a strong sense of purpose. Considers the moral and ethical consequences of a decision. Transformational v. Transactional Transformational v. Transactional Leaders Transformational leaders Leading ­­ changing the organization to fit environment Change agents Transactional leaders Managing ­­ linking job performance to rewards Ensure employees have necessary resources Apply contingency leadership Who Moved My Mountain? Who Moved My Mountain? (The lessons of experience) Start with the truth Appeal to greatness Make them proud Stick to your values Be a broken record Build trust Encourage risk Care for the little guy Ground without grinding Leap first, ask later Set different incentive levels Work quickly through pain Basic Idea Basic Idea Path­Goal Theory Path­Goal Theory Major Components of Path­Goal Theory Major Components of Path­Goal Theory Path-Goal Theory Suggests: Each type of leader behavior has a different kind of impact on subordinates motivation Whether or not a particular leader behavior is motivating is contingent on – subordinate characteristics – task characteristics Leader Behaviors Leader Behaviors Directive Leadership Leader who gives subordinates task instruction including: What is expected of them How task is to be done Timeline for task completion Leader ­ sets clear standards of performance makes rules & regulations clear to subordinates Leader Behaviors Leader Behaviors Supportive Leadership Refers to being friendly and approachable as a leader and includes: Attending to well­being & human needs of subordinates’ Using supportive behavior to make work environment pleasant Treating subordinates as equals & give them respect for their status Leader Behaviors Leader Behaviors Participative Leadership Leader who invites subordinates to share in the decision­making A participative leader: Consults with subordinates Seeks their ideas & opinions Integrates their input into group/organizational decisions Leader Behaviors Leader Behaviors Achievement Oriented Leadership Leader who challenges subordinates to perform work at the highest level possible An achievement oriented leader: Establishes a high standard of excellence for subordinates Seeks continuous improvement Demonstrates a high degree of confidence in subordinates’ ability to establish & achieve challenging goals Subordinate Characteristics Subordinate Characteristics Determine how a leader’s behavior will be interpreted by subordinates in a given work context Researchers focus on subordinates’ Need for affiliation Preferences for structure (less uncertainty) Desires for control (Locus of Control) Self­perceived level of task ability Subordinate Characteristics Subordinate Characteristics Strong need for affiliation – Friendly and concerned leadership is a source of satisfaction – Supportive Leadership Preference for Structure – Dogmatic & authoritarian Leadership provides psychological structure, task clarity & greater sense of certainty in work setting – Directive Leadership Subordinate Characteristics Subordinate Characteristics Desire for Control – Internal locus of control Leadership that allows subordinates to feel in charge of their work & makes them an integral part of the decision-making process Participative Leadership – External locus of control Leadership that parallels subordinates feelings that outside forces control their circumstances Directive Leadership Subordinate Characteristics Subordinate Characteristics Perception of their own ability – specific task – As perception of ability and competence goes up need for highly directive leadership goes down. – Directive leadership may become redundant – possibly excessively controlling Task Characteristics Task Characteristics Components Task Characteristics: – Design of subordinates’ task – Organization’s formal authority system – Primary work group of subordinates Task Characteristics Task Characteristics Task Situations Requiring Leader Involvement Unclear and ambiguous ­ Leader needs to provide structure Highly repetitive ­ Leader needs to provide support to maintain subordinate motivation Weak formal authority ­ If formal authority system is weak, the leader needs to assist subordinates by making rules and work requirements clear Nonsupportive/weak group norms ­ Leader needs to help build cohesiveness and role responsibility Anti­Leadership Approaches Anti­Leadership Approaches Key Arguments Against Leadership Theories Leader Irrelevance Outside Factors Limited Control Substitutes for Leadership How a Situational Characteristic Can How a Situational Characteristic Can Substitute for Leader Behavior High Follower Satisfaction Intrinsically satisfying task Boring task Low Low Leader Consideration High Leader Styles Leader Styles A I, A II (autocratic) C I (consult individuals) C II (consult a group) G II (group consensus) High Leader Leader Control Low GII (100%) CII (80%) CI (50%) A I I(10%) A I (0%) Low High Group Control HIGH COMMITMENT : “ I agree completely.” ACCEPTANCE: “My views were at least considered. I understand why they were or were not adopted.” LOW COMPLIANCE : “Yes, boss”. DECISION RULES IN NORMATIVE DECISION THEORY RULES DESIGNED TO PROTECT DECISION QUALITY Leader Information Rule If the quality of the decision is important and you do not have enough information or expertise to solve the problem alone, eliminate an autocratic style. Goal Congruence Rule If the quality of the decision I important and subordinates are not likely to make the right decision, rule out highly participative style. Unstructured Problem Rule If the quality of the decision is important, but you lack sufficient information and expertise, and the problem is unstructured, eliminate the autocratic leadership styles. 15 DECISION RULES IN NORMATIVE DECISION THEORY RULES DESIGNED TO PROTECT DECISION ACCEPTANCE Acceptance Rule If acceptance by subordinates is crucial for effective implementation, eliminate the autocratic styles. Conflict Rule If acceptance by subordinates is crucial for effective implementation, and they hold conflicting opinions over the means of achieving some objective, eliminate autocratic styles. Fairness Rule If the quality of the decision is unimportant but acceptance is important, use the most participatory style. Acceptance Priority Rule If acceptance is critical and not certain to result from autocratic decisions, and if subordinates are not motivated to achieve the organization’s goals, use a highly participative style. 16 Is the problem structured? Is the problem structured? Do I know exactly what questions to ask? Do I know who has the information? Yes No Yes STRUCTURED UNSTRUCTURED No UNSTRUCTURED UNSTRUCTURED Decision Tree Decision Tree Quality Requirement (QR): How important is the How technical quality of the decision? technical Commitment Requirement (CR): How important is ): subordinate commitment to the decision? subordinate Leader's Information (LI): Do you (the leader) have ): sufficient information to make a high quality decision on your own? your Problem Structure (ST): Is the problem well structured T): (e.g., defined, clear, organized, lend itself to solution, time limited, etc.)? time Commitment Probability (CP): If you were to make the ): decision by yourself, is it reasonably certain that your subordinates would be committed to the decision? subordinates Goal Congruence (GC): Do subordinates share the ): organizational goals to be attained in solving the problem? problem? Subordinate conflict (CO): Is conflict among ): subordinates over preferred solutions likely? subordinates Subordinate information (SI): Do subordinates have ): sufficient information to make a high quality decision? sufficient In –Class Activity In –Class Activity Applying the Vroom­Yetton Model ...
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