BIOL 203 NOTEBOOK PART 1

BIOL 203 NOTEBOOK PART 1 - I. Systematics a. Systematics:...

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I. Systematics a. Systematics: the study of the diversity of life and relationships among living things. i. Taxonomy – the classification of living things ii. Phylogenetics – The study of relationships among living things at and above the species level b. Taxonomy – Organization of living things into groups and giving names to the groups i. Taxon - Any group of organisms. Generally named groups, species and higher ii. Organization into taxa (species and higher) iii. Giving names to the groups is essential for… 1. Communication 2. Documentation of biodiversity 3. Description of the different kinds of living things 4. Creating tools for the identification of living things iv. Tools of Taxonomy 1. Diagnosis – Descriptive documentation of a species not previously identified in scientific literature 2. Dichotomous Keys – A set of true/false questions with pointers to follow-up questions that ultimately leads to the identification of a species a. (e.g., Does if have scales? (y, n); Does it have fangs? (y, n); and so forth) v. History of Taxonomy 1. Aristotle ( ) Made distinctions among living things: a. “Animals with Blood” – generally, vertebrates b. “Animals without Blood” – invertebrates c. “Live-Bearing Animals” and “Egg-Laying animals” and so forth 2. 15 th – 16 th Century Methodists a. Bauhin Brothers (Late 1500s) i. Inventors of Binomial Nomenclature b. John Ray – Botanist, extensive plant classification – coined the term “species” Scala Naturae
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3. Carolus Linnaeus (1701-1778) Swedish Botanish, Zoologist, and Physician a. Father of Taxonomy b. (System of Nature through the Three Kingdoms of Nature, According to the Classes, Orders, Genera, and Species, With Characters, Differences, Synonyms, Places) c. Divided nature into three main kingdoms i. Plantae ii. Animalia iii. Mineralia d. Full species name included up to 8 words i. e. Supplemented with a binomial naming convention based upon the above: i. f. First Consistent Use of Binomials and Ranks. Linnean ranks included i. Kingdom ii. Class iii. Order iv. Genus v. Species c. Modern Ranks are Hierachical – Some are not always used. Those indented are not used as often as those not indented i. Domain ii. Kingdom iii. Phylum iv. Class v. Order 1. Sub-order 2. Superfamily Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum clases, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis Physalis annua ramosissima, ramis angulosis glabris, foliis dentate-serratis Physalis angulata
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vi. Family 1. Subfamily 2. Tribe vii. Genus viii. Species 1. Sub-species d. These can be remembered by the mnemonic: “Did King Philip Cry, Oh, For Goodness Sake” (Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species). II.
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2011 for the course BIOL 203 taught by Professor D.marshall during the Spring '05 term at New Mexico.

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BIOL 203 NOTEBOOK PART 1 - I. Systematics a. Systematics:...

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