l12 - Trait Approaches to Personality ATP PAID 2 Traits Tom...

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Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Trait Approaches to Personality
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Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Lecture contents From cardinal to basic traits Issue 1: What and where are traits? Issue 2: What use are traits?
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Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Traits: The gist Personal (‘internal’) rather than situational (‘external’) Stable rather than transitory (across time) Consistent rather than inconsistent (across ‘similar’ situations) General rather than specific (across ‘different’ situations) Universal dimensions: Individual differences (across people)
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Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Manifest, latent, or manifest because latent? Potential vs. actual Internal vs. interactive Explanation vs. description Behaviours vs. motives, affects, cognitions
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Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits An early definition “generalized and personalized determining tendencies - consistent and stable modes of an individual’s adjustment to his environment” Allport & Odbert (1936, p. 26)
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Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Behavioural traits and individual differences from Situational preferences Cognitive styles Expressive styles
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Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Traits and individual differences attenuated by Strong situational constraints Trait combinations Trait conflicts Other traits Motives Temporary moods Roles
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Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Allport’s non-common traits Cardinal traits Cardinal traits Single defining traits that characterise some, but not all, Single defining traits that characterise some, but not all, individuals. individuals. Central traits Central traits Typically 5-10 traits: “those usually mentioned in careful letters of Typically 5-10 traits: “those usually mentioned in careful letters of recommendation … or in brief verbal descriptions of a person” recommendation … or in brief verbal descriptions of a person” (Allport, 1937). (Allport, 1937).
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l12 - Trait Approaches to Personality ATP PAID 2 Traits Tom...

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