2046chapter11 (1) - 1 Ch. 11: Liquids and Intermolecular...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Ch. 11: Liquids and Intermolecular Forces Learning goals and key skills: h Identify the intermolecular attractive interactions (dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole) that exist between molecules or ions based on their composition and molecular structure and be able to compare the relative strengths of these intermolecular forces h Explain the concept of polarizability and how it relates to dispersion forces h Explain the concepts of viscosity and surface tension in liquids h Know the names of various changes of state for a pure substance h Interpret heating curves and be able to calculate quantities related to temperature and enthalpies of phase changes h Define critical pressure, critical temperature, vapor pressure, normal boiling point, normal melting point, critical point, and triple point h Be able to interpret and sketch phase diagrams. Explain how waters phase diagram differs from most other substances, and why. h Understand how the molecular arrangements characteristic or nematic, smectic, and choloesteric liquid crystals differ from ordinary liquids and from each other. Be able to recognize the features of molecules that favor formation of liquid crystal ine phases. Gases Gases In gases the particles/molecules are far apart and the intermolecular forces between them are weak. ... vs liquids and solids ... vs liquids and solids In liquids and solids this is not true. Instead we must consider the intermolecular forces , i.e., the forces that exist between atoms and molecules. 2 Strength of intermolecular attractions Strength of intermolecular attractions States of Matter States of Matter The fundamental difference between states of matter is the distance between particles. Because in the solid and liquid states particles are closer together, we refer to them as condensed phases . The States of Matter The States of Matter The state a substance is in at a particular temperature and pressure depends on: The kinetic energy of the particles The strength of the attractions between the particles 3 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces 4 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces ion-dipole hydrogen bonding dipole-dipole van der Waals dispersion forces (London) forces The strength of these intermolecular forces is directly related to the melting/boiling points, enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization, and solubility of the substances. enthalpy of vaporization, and solubility of the substances....
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2011 for the course STA 6326 taught by Professor Markjohnson during the Spring '11 term at University of Central Florida.

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2046chapter11 (1) - 1 Ch. 11: Liquids and Intermolecular...

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