revised PPT for AH1- Pneumonia,TB,Occup.Lung Ds-fac

revised PPT for AH1- Pneumonia,TB,Occup.Lung Ds-fac -...

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Nursing Management of Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases Valencia Community College Adult Health I Pneumonia ± Inflammation of the lung parenchyma ± 6 th Leading Cause of Death in USA. ± Incidence and mortality highest among older adults and people with debilitating diseases. ± Presents as infectious or noninfectious. ± Classified as Community-Acquired, Nosocomial, or Opportunistic. ± Streptococcus pneumoniae implicated in 75% of all cases. Etiology ± Lower Respiratory Tract should be sterile. ± Most common mode of entry is aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions containing infectious microbes. ± Contaminated water, droplet transmission, and septicemic transmissions can also occur. ± Microorganism colonization of the alveoli results in antigen-antibody release, resulting in inflammation, edema, and exudate accumulation, which “infiltrates” and obstructs airway flow.
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Types ± Acute Bacterial: - Typically results from Strept. pneumoniae. - Spread via person-to-person contact, inhaled via the individual’s own airway, or droplet. - Results in alveolar edema and infiltration with exudate. - Consolidaiton occurs from alveolar and bronchial filling with blood cells, fibrin, and bacteria. - Lower Lobes (Lobar Pneumonia) most commonly affected. Pneumonia ± Acute Bacterial: - Manifests as highly acute, rapid onset of chills, fever, and cough (rust or purulent expectorant). - Pleuritic (sharp) CP w/ breathing is typical. - Lung Sounds are diminished w/ crackles. - Dyspnea and cyanosis noted in gas exchange impairment. - Bronchopneumonia presents with a low-grade fever, cough, and scattered crackles—less acute in presentation. - In the older adult, S/S may be different because of altered immune capabilities: S/S of hypoxia are common. Pneumonia
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Legionnaire’s Disease ± Form of bronchopneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophilia - found in (warm, long-standing) water. ± 1 st recognized after spreading rapidly at the 1976 American Legion Convention. ± Smokers, older adults, and people with chronic diseases are most susceptible. ± S/S develop slowly—over 2-10 days post-exposure. ± Manifests as dry cough, dyspnea, general malaise, chills/fever, HA, confusion, anorexia and diarrhea. ± Consolidation is patchy or lobar. ± Mortality rate is 31% in non-immunocompetent; 81% if immunocompromised. Legionnaire’s Disease Primary Atypical Pneumonia ± Causative organism mycoplasma pneumoniae ± Develop patchy inflammatory changes in the alveoli ± Young adults primary affected population ± Highly contagious ± ± Referred to as “Walking Pneumonia”
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Viral Pneumonia ± Influenza and adenovirus most common organisms ± Lung involvement is limited to the alveoli septum and interstitial spaces ± Occurs in community epidemics ± S&S: Flu like sx, H/A, fever, fatigue, malaise and muscle aching Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia ± Occurs in 75-80% of people with AIDS ± Produces patchy involvement throughout the lungs causing alveoli to thicken, become
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2011 for the course NUR 2211 taught by Professor Judithclark during the Fall '11 term at Valencia.

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revised PPT for AH1- Pneumonia,TB,Occup.Lung Ds-fac -...

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