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Unformatted text preview: Microbiology THE STUDY OF ORGANISMS THAT ARE TOO SMALL TO SEE WITHOUT THE AID OF A MICROSCOPE Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, Helminths Chapter 1 - The Main Themes of Microbiology I. Infectious Diseases and the Human Condition A. Infectious Disease vs. Noninfectious Disease New research indicates a connection in some cases - Diabetes and the Coxsackie virus; Schizophrenia and the Borna agent (a virus); MS, OCD, Coronary Artery Disease B. Statistics of Disease Occurrences 1. Most Common Infectious Disease in the US Dental Caries in Children 2. Most Widespread Infectious Diseases Reported in the US (2008) a) Chlamydia; b) HPV; c) Gonorrhea; d) Herpes simplex; e) Syphilis; f)Trichomoniasis; 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases H1N1 Influenza 4. Highest Mortality in the US a) Respiratory disease: Influenza and pneumonia; b) Septicemia 5. Highest Mortality Worldwide a) Influenza and pneumonia; b) AIDS; c) Diarrheal diseases; d) TB C. Reducing the Spread of Pathogenic Microbes Hand washing; Disinfectants and Antiseptics; Aseptic technique II. General Characteristics of Microorganisms A. Cellular Organization Two Basic Cell Types 1. Prokaryotic cells Simple cell structure no nucleus; lack membrane-bound organelles ; Microscopic 2. Eukaryotic cells Complex cell structure nucleus; membrane-bound organelles ; Larger than prokaryotes; some are microscopic 3. Characteristics shared by prokaryotes and eukaryotes both have cytoplasm and 1) cell membrane, 2) ribosomes, 3) genetic material ds DNA and ss RNA B. Viruses DNA or RNA : No Cellular Organization: no nucleus ; viral particles: nucleic acid surrounded by a protein capsid and sometimes an envelope C. Size defined by use of the Metric System 1. Helminths millimeters (mm) =10-3 m 2. Most microorganisms micrometers ( m) =10-6 m 3. Viruses nanometers (nm) = 10-9 m 1 III. Terminology Used in Studying Infectious Disease (Chapter 13) A. The Human Host 1. Most microorganisms are free-living and are not only harmless, but beneficial Saprobe - an organism that lives and obtains its nourishment from dead biological material 2. Other microorganisms are considered to be part of the normal biota The Human Microbiome Project: using metogenomics to identify the microbial profile inside and on humans. a. Microbial antagonism good bacteria benefit the human host by preventing the overgrowth of harmful organisms b. Intestinal flora research tendency to be overweight: lower number of Bacteroidetes and higher number of Firmicutes (more calories from food); thinner individuals have the reverse c. Immunocompromised individuals can be infected with their own normal biota....
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2011 for the course MCB 2010 taught by Professor Elizabethingram during the Fall '11 term at Valencia.
- Fall '11