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09_06+From+Paradigms+to+Measurement+-+Ch2+Ch4

09_06+From+Paradigms+to+Measurement+-+Ch2+Ch4 - Sociology...

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1 Sociology SYA4300 Professor Rob White Tuesday (9/6) From Paradigms to Measurement Introduction to Research Design 1 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Paradigms (Definitions) Take 1: Frame of reference for developing social theory and scientific inquiry. Take 2: A set of beliefs that guide scientific work, including unquestioned assumptions and accepted theories. Take 3: Logical frameworks that lead us to asking the “important” questions. 2 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Paradigms 3 One attribute of paradigms: the level of analysis 1. Macrotheory Large, aggregate entities of society Interactions among hypothesized units of analysis EX: institutions, classes, states, societies ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
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2 Paradigms 4 2. Microtheory Smaller units of analysis; may involve both individuals and institutions. Similar emphasis on interactions (between individuals; between individuals and institutions) EX: individuals, small groups ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Paradigms 5 3. Mixed “Grand theories” (Merton, 1967) ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Paradigms and Theory 6 Paradigms guide us to the realm of relevant theory. Functionalism 1. Social entities as organisms. 2. Organisms are made of identifiable parts. 3. Parts work together for survival of the organism Mechanical solidarity Organic solidarity 4. Manifest/latent function EX: social stratification important for function of society Inquiry: constraints to economic mobility Human Development 1. Social entities made of individuals . 2. Individuals pursue their potential. EX: Limits to human capital accumulation affect economic growth Inquiry: Variation in investments in individual development (ex: Pre-K) ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
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3 The Traditional Model of Science 7 1. Theory A. Postulates (assumptions) B. Explanation of observable phenomena (appeal to logic: causal relations) 2. Hypotheses A. Testable expectation involving relations among variables B. Verifiable ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ The Traditional Model of Science 8 3. Operationalization Defined: specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable. 4. Observation ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Summary: Elements of Social Theory 9 1. Paradigms offer guidance to theory 2. Theory concerns causal relations 3. Examining causal relations requires translating concepts to variables 4. Defining hypotheses 5. Operationalizing tests of the hypotheses.
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