Constitutional Principles

Constitutional Principles - SelectedConstitutionalPrinciples

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GBL 395 – Part 3 Fall 2010 Professor Heidi Bulich 1 Selected Constitutional Principles  (The Commerce Clause)
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Commerce Clause 2 Article I, Section 8, Part 3 Congress shall have the power “[t]o regulate Commerce with  foreign Nations, and among the several States. . .” Seems simple enough – what does it mean?
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Commerce Clause 3 The Commerce Clause  limits  ________to the  regulation of  interstate  commerce. Local commerce and  intrastate  commerce is left to  the _________to regulate.
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Commerce Clause 4 Deciding what is and what is not interstate  commerce has been left up to the courts. Battles have occurred over: Federal intrusion into state and local commerce State and local regulation of interstate commerce
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Commerce Clause 5 Commerce Clause has 2 main impacts: Provides source of national authority for interstate activities __________ is the fundamental national interest  which is asserted Brief historical review of court review of  Congressional legislation based on Commerce Clause
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Commerce Clause 6 For the first 100 years, the high court had a very  narrow interpretation of interstate commerce. The standard applied by the US Supreme Court when  reviewing Commerce Clause cases:  is there sufficient  interstate contact or impact to justify federal  regulation? Think about this as we review some of the “big”  cases.
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Commerce Clause 7 Examples of 3 early attempts by Congress to regulate trade between  and among the states and how the Supreme Court handled them: Interstate Commerce Act of 1887  – S. Court reviewed federal statute  in Shreveport Rate Case  (1914). Upheld  – Congress had authority  over interstate carriers as instruments of interstate commerce and  this necessarily includes the right to regulate options in all matters  related to interstate commerce Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890  – S. Court reviewed federal statute in  Sugar Trust Case  (1895). Struck down . Gov. had no authority to  prevent creation of monopoly in sugar refining business
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Commerce Clause 8 Child Labor Laws  – S. Court reviewed in Hammer v.  Dagenhart   (1918). Struck down   federal law  prohibiting transportation of goods manufactured by  certain children. Manufacturing was considered  solely intrastate --  not “commerce”. Congress had no authority to pass this law –  there was not  sufficient interstate contact or impact to justify federal  regulation
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Commerce Clause 9 Congressional authority through Commerce Clause began to gain power in  1930’s with New Deal Supreme Court. Many “New Deal” measures introduced in “First 100 days” based on Commerce 
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Constitutional Principles - SelectedConstitutionalPrinciples

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