Special and General Relativity

Special and General Relativity - 2nd exam Average = 29/40...

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2 nd exam Average = 29/40 Approximate scoring for the first two exams (out of 80) >=74 4.0 68-73 3.5 56-67 3.0 48-55 2.5 36-47 2.0 <36 1.5
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Back to special relativity The special theory of relativity can be summarized with two precepts the laws of physics are the same in all coordinate systems either at rest or moving at constant speed with respect to one another the speed of light in a vacuum has the same value regardless of the velocity of the observer or the velocity of the source emitting the light Some of the consequences are not so intuitive slowing down of clocks lengths contracting masses increasing Plus some visual effects http:// www.youtube.com/ watchv=JQnHTKZ BTI4 all governed by γ Δ t = γΔ t ' γ = 1 1 v 2 c 2 = 1 1 − β 2
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Relativistic momentum No object can travel at the speed of light only electromagnetic waves can travel at the speed of light What happens as you keep adding energy and momentum to a particle its speed increases, but only asymptotically towards c but its energy and momentum keep growing formula for momentum (p=mu) not valid for high speeds; it has to be modified p = mu 1 u 2 c 2 = γ p mu u here used for velocity instead of v again depending on γ
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Relativistic energy E= γ p mc 2 =E o +K =rest energy + kinetic energy Kinetic energy goes to 1/2mu 2 when u<<c γ p mc 2 = mc 2 u 2 c 2 1 + 1 2 u 2 c 2 mc 2 = mc 2 + 1 2 mu 2
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Fermilab accelerator The protons and anti- protons are accelerated to an energy of 980 GeV (billion electron-volts) i.e. their total energy is about 1000 times their rest mass energy or γ is about 1000
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CERN accelerator The proton beams are going to be accelerated to 7 TeV (trillion electron-volts) i.e. their total energy is about 7000 times their rest mass γ is ~7000
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Cockroft and Walton Ernest Rutherford Let’s hear it directly from Einstein.
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2011 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Thompson during the Spring '11 term at Michigan State University.

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Special and General Relativity - 2nd exam Average = 29/40...

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