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Lecture 3-Neuroscience - NEURONS STRUCTURE Dendrite the...

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NEURONS: STRUCTURE Dendrite - the ‘in-box’ it receives signals from: a. Sensory structures (like taste buds) b. Other neurons Cell body – takes care of basic cell functions Axon - the ‘out-box’ ( a xon- a way); it sends signals to: a. Other neurons b. Effector cells (muscles) Myelin Sheath- a fatty substance that encases the axons of some cells, and it increases the speed of transmission Terminal Vesicles/Buttons- Stores and eventually releases enzymes called ‘neurotransmitters’ (NT). The NTs are released into the synapse. Synapse- a small space between the axons of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell. Receptor Sites- locations on the dendrite of the next neuron; NTs bind to receptor sites and the whole process begins anew. NEURONS: communication – WITHIN ACTION POTENTIAL 1) All neurons have a resting state (-70 mv) 2) Dendrite is stimulated Positive ions flow into the cell until… 3) Threshold is reached (-65 mv) Action potential is triggered (all-or-nothing) 4) Wave moves down the axon 5) Wave reaches the terminal vesicles NEURONS: communication – BETWEEN 5) Wave reaches the terminal vesicles 6) Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse 7) NTs bind with receptors on dendrite of next neuron 8) Process starts in the next cell NTs can: * Excite the next neuron * Inhibit the next neuron Refractory period - Brief period when the neuron is unable to fire again
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Reuptake: excess NTs are taken back for reuse in the axon of the neuron that released them Axon returns to resting state.
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