Lecture 8 Fall 2011 9-27 - Nature, Nurture, and Human...

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Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity 0% Chapter 4
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Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity What causes our striking diversity in psychological functioning, and also our shared identity?
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People differ in many aspects of psychological functioning. For example, some people possess a “Type A” personality and are aggressive, ambitious, and controlling, whereas others possess a “Type B” personality and are passive and easy-going. Credit: Kjetil Ree
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People differ in many aspects of psychological functioning. For example, some people possess a “Type A” personality and are aggressive, ambitious, and controlling, whereas others possess a “Type B” personality and are passive and easy-going. Credit: Luca Galuzzi
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Yet, we are also similar in some aspects of our psychological functioning. For example, whether we live in the Arctic or tropics, we divide the color spectrum into similar colors. Farbentafel, Wilhelm von Bezold
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Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Behavioral Genetics The study of effects of environmental and genetic factors, and their interplay, on differences in psychological traits
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Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Behavioral Genetics Genes: Our Codes for Life
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Genes: Our Codes for Life Every cell in your body contains chromosomes —23 donated from your mother, and 23 from your father.
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Genes: Our Codes for Life Each chromosome is made up of two strands of DNA connected in a double helix. Genes are small segments of DNA molecules.
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Genes: Our Codes for Life James Watson and Francis Crick with their DNA model at the Cavendish Laboratories in 1953. Photograph copyright A. Barrington Brown.
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Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Behavioral Genetics Twin and Adoption Studies
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Identical Versus Fraternal Twins Identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg and are genetically identical, whereas fraternal twins develop from separate fertilized eggs and share half their genes, just like siblings. Credit: Derek Oliver (AP)
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Identical Versus Fraternal Twins
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Correlation Between IQs of Family Members Identical twins reared together .86 Fraternal twins reared together .60 Siblings reared together .47 (Bouchard & McGue, 1981) Identical Versus Fraternal Twins
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Separated Twins Even identical twins separated at birth and raised apart tend to be more similar in their psychological makeup than fraternal twins. Credit: Bob Sacha
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Jim Lewis and Jim Springer, identical twins, first met at the age of 39. Lewis was a security. guard, Springer a deputy sheriff. Both married, and divorced, a woman named Linda—and remarried a Betty. Separated Twins Credit: Bob Sacha
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Lewis had a son named “James Alan” and Springer a son named “James Allan”—and both shared a taste for Miller Lite and enjoyed watching Nascar. Separated Twins Credit: Bob Sacha
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Separated Twins Personality, Intelligence Abilities, Attitudes Interests, Fears Brain Waves, Heart Rate Separated Twins Obviously, some of these similarities are pure coincidence. But research has revealed that identical twins separated at birth are indeed more similar to less genetically-related pairs in a number of traits.
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Lecture 8 Fall 2011 9-27 - Nature, Nurture, and Human...

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