Lecture 14 Fall 2011 10-20 - Thinking and Language Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Thinking and Language Chapter 9 Thinking and Language Thinking Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating The Thinker, Rodin Thinking and Language Thinking Problem Solving Some problems we solve by trail-and-error, and others by using algorithms methodical, step by step procedures that guarantee a solution. SPLOYOCHYG However, algorithms are time-consuming, and thus we often use heuristics sample thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems efficiently. Heuristics are usually speedier but more error prone. Credit: B 2 M Productions/Digital Vision/Getty Images Obstacles to Problem Solving Confirmation bias our tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore contradictory evidence. Obstacles to Problem Solving The Matchstick Problem: How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles? Fixation our inability to see a problem from a new perspective, employing a different mental set. Obstacles to Problem Solving The Matchstick Problem: How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles? Fixation our inability to see a problem from a new perspective, employing a different mental set. Obstacles to Problem Solving Fixation our inability to see a problem from a new perspective, employing a different mental set. Obstacles to Problem Solving The Candle-Mounting Problem: Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board? Functional Fixedness our tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions. Obstacles to Problem Solving Functional Fixedness our tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions. http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=ksgaup4zqz0&vq=medium#t=86 http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=3vQz_YUvcLQ&vq=medium Thinking and Language Thinking Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Using and Misusing Heuristics Amos Tversky Daniel Kahneman Courtesy of Greymayer Award, U. of Louisville Using and Misusing Heuristics If you meet a slim, short, man who wears glasses and likes poetry, what do you think his profession would be? An Ivy league professor of Classics or a truck driver? The Representativeness Heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes. Using and Misusing Heuristics How many Ivy league schools are there? 10 How many Classics professors are at each school? 4 Of those 40, what proportion are short and slim? Half Of those 20, what proportion read poetry? Half or 10 The Representativeness Heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes. Using and Misusing Heuristics How many truck drivers are there? 400,000 Of those 400,000, what proportion are short and slim? 1 in 5 Of those 80k, what proportion read poetry? 1 in 1,000 or 800 The Representativeness Heuristic...
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Caldwell during the Fall '10 term at Michigan State University.

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Lecture 14 Fall 2011 10-20 - Thinking and Language Chapter...

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