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Pamela Hood PHIL 301 Essay #1, p.1 My page margins are 1'' right, left and bottom. The top is set to .5, leaving .5 for the header. In Categories 7 Aristotle presents two accounts of relational being. He also tries to answer a lingering ἀπορία : Should secondary substances, e.g., heads and hands, be included in the category of relational being? Are they genuine relatives? Aristotle answers that they are not. The argument he gives may be represented as follows: (1) For something to be a relative, it must be related to something (8a31-33). (2) If one knows definitely that a particular thing is a relative, then it follows that one also will know definitely that thing to which something is related (8a37-8b1). (3) If one does not know that to which something is related, neither will one know whether it is related to something. (8b1-2) (4) One can know definitely that something is a head without having to know that to which it is related (8b15-19). (5) Therefore, heads (and other substances) are not relatives (8b19-21). Crucial to the argument are premises (1) and (2). According to (1), all genuine relatives meet a stringent met aphysical requirement which Aristotle introduces in his second account of relational being ( Categories 8a32-33; see also Topics VI, 146b3-4). There he says that " being " for a relative is the same as its being related to something else. According to (2), our knowledge of a relative must meet a similarly exacting epistemological requirement ( K ): K If a particular thing definitely ( ὡρισμένως ) is known to be a relative, then its correlative must also be known definitely. For if one knows that x is a relative, then one knows that to which x is related. If one doesn't know that to which x is related, neither will one know whether x is related to something ( Categories 8a37-8b4; see also
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