Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular Disease - The Science of Physical Activity...

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Unformatted text preview: The Science of Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Health KNES 260 Spring 2010 Jennie Phillips, Ph.D. What is Cardiovascular Disease? The Public Health Importance of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) American Heart Association 2009 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update. Reading #1 Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Any disease affecting the heart or vascular system (blood vessels) system Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Coronary Heart Disease General Information About Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Primarily myocardial infarction (MI) One of many CV diseases Single largest cause of death of American Single men and women men Not much higher in African Americans than Not Caucasian Americans Caucasian Scary part – 48% of men and 63% of women Scary who die suddenly from a heart attack have no previous symptoms!!!!!!! previous Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Coronary Heart Disease Angina Pectoris Angina Pectoris Angina Chest pain from CV disease (physician diagnosed) (physician 7 million Americans suffer from it Only 20% of heart attacks are preceded Only by long-standing angina pectoris by Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Coronary Heart Disease Angina Pectoris Stroke General Information About Strokes General Third leading individual cause of death in US after Third heart attacks and cancer heart In US, one stroke every 53 seconds and every 3.1 In minutes an American dies from a stroke minutes Death rates from stroke are 46% higher in AfricanDeath 46% American men compared to Caucasian-American American men men Death rates from stroke are 33% higher in AfricanDeath 33% American women compared to Caucasian-American American women women Lower in all other ethnic groups compared to African Lower Americans and Caucasian-Americans Americans Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Coronary Heart Disease Angina Pectoris Stroke Hypertension General Information About High Blood Pressure High Also called hypertension 60 million Americans have it (1 of every 4) Along with obesity and physical Along inactivity, the most prevalent medical condition in US today condition Defined as systolic BP >140 mmHg and/or Defined diastolic >90 mmHg diastolic Bad news – one-third of hypertensives Bad don’t even know they have it!!! don’t General Information About General High Blood Pressure Hypertension death rates are Hypertension 3.5 times 3.5 higher in African Americans than Caucasians Caucasians 4.2 times greater risk of kidney failure in African Americans compared to Caucasians Caucasians 25% of people with hypertension on 25% medications don’t have their BP adequately controlled!!!! adequately Why is understanding cardiovascular disease important? cardiovascular Major Impact on Public Health! Causes of Death in United States - 2005 in Cause Percentage of Deaths Deaths Number of Deaths Deaths Cardiovascular Disease 35.3% 864,480 Cancer Cancer 22.8% 559,312 Accidents Accidents 4.8% 117,809 Alzheimer’s Disease 2.9% 71,599 HIV 0.5% Other 33.7% 12,543 Cardiovascular Disease Facts Cardiovascular Major cause of death in US every year Major except 1918 except One American dies every 37 seconds of One CV disease (1 of every 2.8 deaths) CV In women, 1 in 6 from CV disease, 1 in 30 In deaths from breast cancer deaths More deaths due to CV disease in women More than men than CV disease major cause of death in all US CV ethnic/racial groups ethnic/racial Leading Causes of Death for All Males and Females United States: 2005 Deaths in Thousands 500,000 409,867 454,613 Deaths 400,000 290,422 300,000 268,890 200,000 76,375 62,435 100,000 68,498 36,538 41,434 51,040 0 A B C D E Males A Total CVD B Cancer C Accidents A B D F C Females D Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases E Diabetes Mellitus F Alzheimer’s Disease CVD and other major causes of death for all males and females (United States: 2005). Source: NCHS. Leading Causes of Death for White Males and Females United States: 2005 P ercent of Total Deaths Percentage of Deaths 40 35 30 36.7 34.2 24.4 25 20 15 10 21.7 6.3 5.5 C D 5 0 A B E Males A Total CVD B Cancer C Accidents 6.0 2.9 A B 4.4 3.3 D F C Females D Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases E Diabetes Mellitus F Alzheimer’s Disease CVD and other major causes of death for white males and females (United States: 2005). Source: CVD NCHS. NCHS. Leading Causes of Death for Black Males and Females United States: 2005 P ercent of Total Deaths Percentage of Deaths 40 35 37.0 32.4 30 25 20 15 21.9 10 5 0 21.2 6.3 A B 5.0 3.8 C D E Males A Total CVD B Cancer C Accidents 5.0 A B E 3.1 3.0 F C Females D Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases E Diabetes Mellitus F Alzheimer’s Disease CVD and other major causes of death for African American males and females (United States: 2005). Source: NCHS. Leading Causes of Death for Hispanic or Latino Males and Females United States: 2005 Percent of Total Deaths Percentage of Deaths 40 35 30 30.1 25.9 25 21.4 18.8 20 15 11.7 10 5 4.5 D E 5.9 4.1 5.0 D C 2.8 0 A B C Males A Total CVD B Cancer C Accidents A B F Females D Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases E Diabetes Mellitus F Alzheimer’s Disease CVD and other major causes of death for Hispanic or Latino males and females (United States: 2005). Source: NCHS. Leading Causes of Death for Asian or Pacific Islander Males and Females United States: 2005 Percent of Total Deaths Percentage of Deaths 40 35 30 32.8 32.1 27.6 26.0 25 20 15 10 5.8 5 0 A B C 3.5 D E Males A Total CVD B Cancer C Accidents 4.0 3.4 A B 3.9 3.0 E C F Females D Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases E Diabetes Mellitus F Alzheimer’s Disease CVD and other major causes of death for Pacific Islander males and females (United States: 2005). Source: NCHS. Leading Causes of Death for American Indian or Alaska Native Males and Females United States: 2005 Percentage of Deaths F A Total CVD B Cancer C Accidents D Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases E Diabetes Mellitus F Alzheimer’s Disease CVD and other major causes of death for American Indian of Alaska Native males and females (United States: 2005). CVD Source: NCHS. Source: Cardiovascular Disease Facts Cardiovascular 1200 death rates dropped from 1970’s 1970’s Bad news – American American population is growing older growing More bad news... 800 600 400 200 0 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 00 06 Years Deaths from cardiovascular disease (United States: 1900–2006 preliminary). Source: NCHS and NHLBI. 100 85.9 90 Percent of Population Good news – CVD Good D eaths in Thousands 1000 80 73.3 72.6 79.3 70 60 50 37.9 38.5 40 30 20 10 15.9 7.8 0 20-39 40-59 60-79 Men 80+ Women Prevalence of CVD in adults age 20 and older by age and sex (NHANES: 2005-2006). Source: NCHS and NHLBI. These data include coronary Global CVD Issues Global CVDs are the number one cause of death globally: CVDs number more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause other An estimated 17.5 million people died from CVDs in An 2005, representing 30% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, an estimated 7.6 million were due to coronary heart disease and 5.7 million were due to stroke. Over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low- and Over middle-income countries and occur almost equally in men and women men By 2015, almost 20 million people will die from CVDs, By mainly from heart disease and stroke. These are projected to remain the single leading causes of death. Comparison of US CVD Death Rates to Other Countries to Russian Federation, Hungary, Bulgaria, Russian Romania, Poland highest rates for men and women women Switzerland, Japan, France, Spain lowest Switzerland, rates for men and women rates CV disease death rates in the lowest CV countries are about 25% of the rates in the highest countries highest US lies about in the middle – death rates US twice those of lowest countries, half those of highest countries highest More Bad News... More Percent of Population 60 50 52.3 50.6 46.0 49.6 45.3 42.0 40.3 40 41.9 36.1 36.3 40.5 43.1 45.7 46.6 41.2 31.4 30 20 10 0 NH White NH Black Men '01 Women '01 Hispanic Men '05 Other race Women '05 Prevalence of regular leisure-time physical activity among adults age 18 and older by race/ethnicity, Prevalence and sex. (BRFSS: 2001 and 2005). Source: MMWR, 2007;56:No. 46. NH – non-Hispanic. and To this point we have talked about the first “D” of the first three big D’s associated with CV disease: with DEATHS The second of the three big D’s associated with CV disease is: disease is: DISABILITY CV Disease and Disability CV 8 million Americans disabled due to million CV disease CV 19% of all disabilities due to CV 19% disease disease Stroke is leading cause of long-term Stroke disability (1 million people) disability Hypertension associated with 2.2 Hypertension million Americans with long-term disability disability Two-thirds of heart attack patients Two-thirds don’t make a full recovery don’t The third of the three big D’s third associated with CV disease associated is: is: DOLLARS Economic Impact of CV Disease Economic Numerous effects on society Numerous beyond the first two D’s – death and disability and ~600,000 cardiac bypass ~600,000 surgeries in 1999 at ~$40,000 each surgeries 2200 cardiac transplants in 2000 6.1 million CV surgeries every 6.1 year year Economic Impact of CV Disease Economic Estimated cost of CV disease in US for 2009 is $475.3 billion US ...
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