LECTURE 3 NOTES SPR11-1 - LECTURE 3 INTRO: Review of Brain...

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LECTURE 3 INTRO: Review of Brain Neurochemistry And Neuroanatomy: Everything else In this lecture we will review the basic aspects of the Glutamate, GABA,  Acetylcholine, Opioid and Neuropeptide systems.   These systems differ quite  substantially from the monoamines both in terms of function and anatomy.  All of  these systems also interact with the monoamine systems, but these interactions  will not be explored until later in the course.  There are also a variety of other  compounds   which   act   as   neurotransmitters,   neuromodulators   or   retrograde  neurotransmitters that function in a paracrine fashion. I. Excitatory Amino Acids:   Many amino acids act as neurotransmitters:  including   Glutamate ,   Aspartate ,   Taurine , and   Histidine .   These are termed  excitatory amino acids because they create EPSPs.  Most of these compounds,  in particular glutamate, are involved in many cellular metabolic pathways, which  made it difficult to establish that they also act as neurotransmitters.  We will limit  ourselves to examining glutamate in this class. A. Synthesis Metabolism and Reuptake :  Glutamate is formed as a  side product of  the Krebs cycle  (the metabolic pathway for glucose in all cells)  or from   α -ketoglutarate   by   alanine   aminotransferase   (in neurons), or from  glutamine  by  glutaminase  (in glia).  Metabolism of glutamate is often the result  of   simply   reversing   the   reactions   and   producing   glutamine,   by   glutamine  synthetase,  α -ketoglutarate by glutamate dehydrogenase.  The main method for  limiting the synaptic action of glutamate is reuptake by  excitatory amino acid  transporters (EEATs) , into both neural and glial cells by different transporters as  well as a vesicular transporter.  Most of these transporters show relatively low  selectively for glutamate relative to other excitatory amino acids.   B. Distribution :     There   are  numerous   glutamatergic  systems   with  widely   dispersed   origins   and   projections,   including   most   cortical   projection  neurons   and   numerous   other   subcortical,   diencephalic,   pontine   and   limbic  projection   neurons.     Examples   include   the   projections   from   the   prefrontal  cortex hippocampus  and  amygdala  to the  nucleus accumbens .
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C. Receptors :     There   are   3   main   types   of   ionotropic   glutamate  receptors that were defined based on specific agonist binding:  Kainate NMDA AMPA  receptors.  Like many other ionotropic receptors, the glutamate receptor is  composed  of  subunits,   each  transcribed  by  a  different  gene,  which  can be  arranged in different combinations.  In addition to a glutamate binding site, these 
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2011 for the course PSYC 404 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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LECTURE 3 NOTES SPR11-1 - LECTURE 3 INTRO: Review of Brain...

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