LECTURE 8 NOTES SPR11 - LECTURE 8 Social Behavior, Sex and...

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LECTURE 8 Social Behavior, Sex and Aggression “Lechery, sir, it provokes, and unprovokes: it provokes the desire, but it takes  away the performance.” -  W. Shakespeare, 1604 I. Social   Behavior   broadly   includes   any   behavior   directed   towards  conspecifics.  A. Sexual and reproductive behavior :  this includes a broad range  of   behaviors,   and   related   physiological   processes,   that   have   some  overlapping  central  control   mechanisms  –   courtship,   ovulation,  sexual  receptivity, copulation, pregnancy, parturition, lactation and parental care. B. Parental behavior :  care and feeding of young, e.g. nursing, nest  building, retrieval. C. Agonistic behavior :  related to sexual and reproductive behavior;  any behavior that involves competition for resources, including mates,  even indirectly; most research in this area relates to aggression. D. Play behavior :   the purpose and consequences of play are a  matter of some debate, but at least a part of it, at least for rough and  tumble play, has agonistic qualities. II. Sexual   Behavior   Basics:     Sexual   Development   is   genetically  determined by sex chromosomes (in mammals XX is female and XY is  male).  Anatomical development is determined by the actions of hormones  at particular times during development.   These are   the organizational  effects   of hormones; in addition in adults many of the same hormones  also have   activational effects   on behavior.   Differences between the  sexes are referred to as  sexual dimorphism ; this includes both physical  and behavioral characteristics. A. Basic Anatomical development
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1. Female and male sexual glands develop from the  same  primordial gonads ; the  cortex  develops into the ovaries in females; the  medulla  develops into the testes in males. 2. 2   primordial   sexual   ducts   exist   before   this   time;   the  Mullerian system  develops into the uterus vagina and fallopian tubes; the  Wolffian system  develops into the seminal vesicles and the vas deferens. 3. The   development   of   male   features   is   induced;   female  development appears to be a default condition. a. 6   weeks   postnatal:   testis-determining   factor   (Y  chromosome   gene   Sry)   is   produced   in   males   causing   the   testes   to  develop;  its absence leads to development of ovaries.  The subsequent  prenatal   release   of   gonadal   hormones,   at   low   levels,   affects   brain  development. b.
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LECTURE 8 NOTES SPR11 - LECTURE 8 Social Behavior, Sex and...

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