LECTURE 13 NOTES SPR11 - LECTURE 13 LearningandMemory

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LECTURE 13 Learning and Memory “Memory is a net; one finds it full of fish when he take it from the brook; but a  dozen miles of water have run through it without sticking.” - Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., 1858 “Creditors have better memories than debtors”, Benjamin Franklin 1758 I. Learning and Memory:   These two concepts are integrally related but a  variety of things such as attention, vigilance and intelligence affect learning which  are independent of memory. A. Types of Learning : 1. Perceptual Learning :  recognition of stimuli; different brain  regions are involved in learning to recognize particular stimuli, e.g. dorsal and  ventral stream in the visual system.  Recognition itself is a rather specific process  that involves activation of a set of established neural circuits.  Examples (part of  the ventral stream in inferior temporal cortex):  a. fusiform face area  b. parahippocampal place area c. In the rhesus monkey both of these regions project to  the principal sulcus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and is involved in visual  short term memory. 2. Motor Learning :   learned motor behavior (as opposed to  innate) 3. Stimulus-response   Learning :     Classical   conditioning   of  innate unlearned responses and instrumental conditioning of learned responses;  both require perceptual and motor systems; instrumental conditioning usually  involves both perceptual and motor learning.
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a. Classical   Conditioning :     Association   between   two  stimuli,   an   unconditioned   stimulus   (that   produces   an   unconditioned  response ), and neutral stimulus.  Based on this association, the neutral stimulus  becomes a   conditioned stimulus   that evokes a   conditioned response   (the  same as the UCR).   Example:   fear conditioning as discussed in a previous  lecture. b. Instrumental Conditioning :   Association between a  response and a stimulus.  A  reinforcing stimulus  increases the frequency of the  response in the presence of the stimulus.  A  punishing stimulus  decreases the  frequency of the response.  Instrumental conditioning involves the guidance of  motor learning by reinforcement, and thus a constant integration of perceptual,  motor and motivational states; this is produced largely in the striatum.  A key part  of   this   is   reward   circuits   involving   dopamine   projections   from   the   ventral  tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens (but also from the substantia nigra to  the striatum, and some other neurotransmitters, but the most important is the  mesolimbic dopamine system).   4. Habit Learning :  When instrumental learning becomes over- trained,  from  extensive,   repeated  exposure,  different   processes come  to  be 
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2011 for the course PSYC 404 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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LECTURE 13 NOTES SPR11 - LECTURE 13 LearningandMemory

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