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ResearchAssign1 - Gendreau Nicole Kin 355 sec 3...

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Gendreau, Nicole Kin 355 sec. 3 Assignment #1 September 20, 2011 Source Summaries Topic: Cardiac structure and functional changes from the use of ergogenic aids during exercise Notes: 1. Title: Is it more effective for highly trained swimmers to live and train at 1200m than at 1850m in terms of performance and hematological benefits? Authors: B Roels. P Hellard, L Schmitt, P Robach, J-P Richalet, G P Millet Year: 2006 Summary: The performance of competitive swimmers was measured at two different altitudes. The results of this study showed that there was a more significant improvement in endurance performance at a low altitude of 1200m than at a higher altitude of 1850m. Hematological changes were higher at 1850m, such as decrease in maximal heart rate, and the number of reticulocytes in the bloodstream. There was no improvement in VO 2 Max at either altitude. 2. Title: Training in hypoxia and its effects on skeletal muscle tissue Authors: H. Hoppeler, S. Klossner, M. Vogt Year: 2008 Summary: Severe hypoxia, when reaching an altitude of 5000m or above, leads to the loss of skeletal muscle tissue. Studies on mountaineers on expeditions for 5-6 weeks in the high altitudes of the Himalayas “leads to muscle volume loss, and a decrease in fiber size, but no change in muscle fiber-type distribution.” Long-term hypoxia is dangerous to muscle tissue. This article contains the result of 9 studies on trained subjects, and 12 studies on untrained
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subjects using the “live-low, train- high” mechanism. The purpose of these studies is to discover any benefits in performance from short-term hypoxia training sessions. Four studies of trained subjects and nine studies of untrained subjects showed benefits from hypoxic training. 3. Title: Ergogenic aids Authors: L.A. Thein, J. M Thein, G.L. Landry Year:1995 Summary: This article analyzes the use and effects of common ergogenic aids. Anabolic steroids which “work to increase protein synthesis, lean body mass, and nitrogen balance” are popular among athletes interested in increasing muscle mass. Steroids negatively affect the liver, reproductive system, and can cause the user to be more prone to injury. A decrease in HDL is also seen in steroid users. An increase in aggression is also seen among steroid users, which can be considered beneficial to their sport (e.g. football).
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