Skepticism- an attitude marked by a tendency to doubt what others accept to be true.
Rationalism- the belief that reason and logic are the primary sources of knowledge and truth.
Deism- a belief in God based on reason rather than revelation and involving the view that God
has set the universe in motion but does not interfere with how it runs. Deism was especially
influential in the 17th and 18th centuries.
known for his
, including both
freedom of religion
Denis Diderot- was a French
and writer. He was a prominent figure during
and is best known for serving as chief editor of and contributor to the
Rousseau- French political philosopher whose ideas influenced the French Revolution. Rousseau
proposed that man is naturally good and that civilization causes man to become evil. The General
Will, well my interpretation of the General Will, is that Rousseau believes that people will put a
group of people’s needs before their own individual needs and as long as the group succeeds, the
individual succeeds. Mr. McKenzie believes Rousseau is crazy.
Baron de Montesquieu- French social commentator and political thinker who proposed the idea
of the separation of powers.
Immanuel Kant- 18
century German philosopher, famous for his work with
concerned with the nature and limitations of
) , religion,
law, and history.
Rene Descartes- French philosopher and mathematician. Nicknamed the “Father of Modern
Philosophy” and he is the creator of calculus.
Adam Smith- Scottish moral philosopher and is the father of modern economics.
was a French economist and is described as being the first person to describe
economics in an analytical way, which therefore opened up new economic ideas.
Empiricism- the doctrine that all knowledge is derived from sense experience.
Francis Bacon- , was an
, and author. He
served both as
of England. Although his political career
ended in disgrace, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as
philosophical advocate and practitioner of the
Blaise Pascal- was a French
. He was a
who was educated by his father, a
. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural
where he made important contributions to the construction of mechanical