Intro to Phil 9

Intro to Phil 9 - Berkeley and Idealism Locke Locke...

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Berkeley and Idealism
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Locke Locke concentrates on ideas: we have immediate access to our ideas and some aspects of our ideas resemble the world as it is. But why think that our ideas resemble the world at all? Locke’s idea theory appears to raise a difficult epistemological problem about our knowledge of things beyond on ideas.
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Berkeley Berkeley will give a radical solution to this problem.
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The Set Up Berkeley presents his arguments in the form of a dialogue between Hylas and Philonous . Berkeley uses the dialogue to attack materialism , i.e. the view that mind- independent objects exist. Of course, if such things don’t exist then there is no puzzle to be solved about how we can have knowledge of them.
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Dialogues Hylas represents the materialist. (‘Hylas’ is derived from the Greek for matter.) Philonous (lover of mind) represents the idealist, i.e. those who claim that no material things exist.
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First Argument 1. Sensible qualities are the only immediately perceived things. 2. Heat is a sensible quality. 3. A great degree of heat is a great degree of pain. (“is not the most vehement and intense degree of heat a very great pain?”) 4. Pain cannot exist in an unperceiving thing. 5. Material things are unperceiving. 6. Therefore, heat does not exist in material things.
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Sub-Argument for Premise 3 1. One experiences one sensation when holding one’s hand near the fire. 2. It is a sensation of great heat. 3. It is a sensation of pain. 4. Therefore, great heat is pain.
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The Identity of Heat and Pain Should we really grant Berkeley’s claim that heat and pain are one and the same thing?
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Another Argument 1. Nothing can be both hot and cold. 2. A warm bucket of water can produce the sensation of heat and cold. 3. Therefore, heat and cold are not properties of the water.
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A Final Version 1. No object can be completely [one colour] and completely [another colour]. 2.
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Intro to Phil 9 - Berkeley and Idealism Locke Locke...

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