Intro to phil 12

Intro to phil 12 - Knowledge Plan 1.Revisit the Gettier...

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Knowledge
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Plan 1. Revisit the Gettier cases and the problems they raise for the JTB view. 2. Ask whether justification, truth or belief are really necessary for knowledge. 3. Look at two conflicting accounts of what justification consists of.
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The Story So Far A traditional view analyzed knowledge as:
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The Story So Far A traditional view analyzed knowledge as: 1. A belief that was
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The Story So Far A traditional view analyzed knowledge as: 1. A belief that was 2. Justified
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The Story So Far A traditional view analyzed knowledge as: 1. A belief that was 2. Justified 3. True
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Gettier Problems Gettier problems appeared to show that this picture was flawed.
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Necessary and Sufficient Conditions What are we looking for in an analysis of knowledge: A statement of informative necessary and sufficient conditions for knowledge. S knows that p if and only if . ..
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Knowledge We are interested in an analysis of propositional knowledge . The traditional picture analyzed knowledge thus: S knows that p if and only if [iff] S believes that p , S is justified in believing p , and p is true.
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Gettier Gettier showed that this condition wasn’t sufficient . In his stories, the protagonists have justified true belief in a proposition that, intuitively, they fail to know.
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New Analyses These counterexamples spurred a number of attempts to provide a more satisfactory analysis.
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Escaping the Gettier Cases Recall the structure of the Gettier cases that we talked about. Jones has justification for believing some proposition p . p is false. From p , Jones infers something true, say p v q . (Remember, though falsehoods can’t be inferred from truths, truths can be inferred from falsehoods.) Because it seems natural to suppose that justification transmits across valid deduction, Jones justifiedly believes the truth p v q . But intuitively, Jones does not know p v q .
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Adding a Constraint As was suggested in class on Wednesday, one might try to fix the JTB account by adding something like the following requirement: S knows that p only if S’ s belief that p is not inferred from a falsehood.
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Intro to phil 12 - Knowledge Plan 1.Revisit the Gettier...

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