psych Final.docx - Chapter 11 Childhood and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11: Childhood and Neurodevelopmental Disorders MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which factor presents the highest risk for a child to develop a psychiatric disorder? c. Living with an alcoholic parent ANS: C Having a parent with a substance abuse problem has been designated an adverse psychosocial condition that increases the risk of a child developing a psychiatric condition. Being in a middleincome family and being the oldest child do not represent psychosocial adversity. Having a family history of schizophrenia presents a risk, but an alcoholic parent in the family offers a greater risk. 2. Which nursing diagnosis is universally applicable for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders? a. Impaired social interaction related to difficulty relating to others ANS: A Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders display profoundly disturbed social relatedness. They seem aloof and indifferent to others, often preferring inanimate objects to human interaction. Language is often delayed and deviant, further complicating relationship issues. The other nursing diagnoses might not be appropriate in all cases. 3. Which behavior indicates that the treatment plan for a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder was effective? The child: c. holds the parent’s hand while walking. ANS: C Holding the hand of another person suggests relatedness. Usually, a child with an autism spectrum disorder would resist holding someone’s hand and stand or walk alone, perhaps flapping arms or moving in a stereotyped pattern. The incorrect options reflect behaviors that are consistent with autism spectrum disorders. 4. A kindergartener is disruptive in class. This child is unable to sit for expected lengths of time, inattentive to the teacher, screams while the teacher is talking, and is aggressive toward other children. The nurse plans interventions designed to: c. reduce loneliness and increase selfesteem. ANS: C Because of their disruptive behaviors, children with ADHD often receive negative feedback from parents, teachers, and peers, leading to self-esteem disturbance. These behaviors also cause peers to avoid the child with ADHD, leaving the child with ADHD vulnerable to loneliness. The child does not need inpatient treatment at this time. The incorrect options might or might not be relevant. 5. A nurse will prepare teaching materials for the parents of a child newly diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which medication will the information focus on? c. Methyphenidate (Ritalin) ANS: C CNS stimulants are the drugs of choice for treating children with ADHD: Ritalin and dexedrine are commonly used. None of the other drugs are psychostimulants used to treat ADHD. 6. What is the nurse’s priority focused assessment for side effects in a child taking methylphenidate (Ritalin) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? c. Sleep disturbances and weight loss ANS: C The most common side effects are gastrointestinal disturbances, reduced appetite, weight loss, urinary retention, dizziness, fatigue, and insomnia. Weight loss has the potential to interfere with the child’s growth and development. The distracters relate to side effects of conventional antipsychotic medications. 7. A desired outcome for a 12-year-old diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is to improve relationships with other children. Which treatment modality should the nurse suggest for the plan of care? c. Social skills group ANS: C Social skills training teaches the child to recognize the impact of his or her behavior on others. It uses instruction, role-playing, and positive reinforcement to enhance social outcomes. The other therapies would have lesser or no impact on peer relationships. 8. The parent of a 6-year-old says, “My child is in constant motion and talks all the time. My child isn’t interested in toys but is out of bed every morning before me.” The child’s behavior is most consistent with diagnostic criteria for: d. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ANS: D Excessive motion, distractibility, and excessive talkativeness are seen in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behaviors presented in the scenario do not suggest intellectual development, stereotypic, or communication disorder. 9. A child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had this nursing diagnosis: impaired social interaction related to excessive neuronal activity as evidenced by aggression and demanding behavior with others. Which finding indicates the plan of care was effective? The child: d. engages in cooperative play with other children. ANS: D The goal should be directly related to the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis, in this case, improvement in the child’s aggressiveness and play. The distracters are more relevant for a child with autism spectrum or anxiety disorder. 10. When a 5-year-old diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) bounces out of a chair and runs over and slaps another child, what is the nurse’s best action? d. Take the aggressive child to another room. ANS: D The nurse should manage the milieu with structure and limit setting. Removing the aggressive child to another room is an appropriate consequence for the aggressiveness. Directing the child to stop will not be effective. This is not an emergency. Intervention is needed rather than sending the child home. 11. A child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder will begin medication therapy. The nurse should prepare a plan to teach the family about which classification of medications? a. Central nervous system stimulants ANS: A Central nervous system stimulants, such as methylphenidate and pemoline (Cylert), increase blood flow to the brain and have proved helpful in reducing hyperactivity in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The other medication categories listed would not be appropriate. 12. Soon after parents announced they were divorcing, a child stopped participating in sports, sat alone at lunch, and avoided former friends. The child told the school nurse, “If my parents loved me, they would work out their problems.” Which nursing diagnosis has the highest priority? a. Social isolation ANS: A This child shows difficulty coping with problems associated with the family. Social isolation refers to aloneness that the patient perceives negatively, even when self-imposed. The other options are not supported by data in the scenario. 13. A nurse works with a child who is sad and irritable because the child’s parents are divorcing. Why is establishing a therapeutic alliance with this child a priority? a. Therapeutic relationships provide an outlet for tension. b. Focusing on the strengths increases a person’s self-esteem. c. Acceptance and trust convey feelings of security to the child. d. The child should express feelings rather than internalize them. ANS: C Trust is frequently an issue because the child may question their trusting relationship with the parents. In this situation, the trust the child once had in parents has been disrupted, reducing feelings of security. The correct answer is the most global response. 14. A nurse assesses a 3-year-old diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Which finding is most associated with the child’s disorder? The child: d. continuously rocks in place for 30 minutes. ANS: D Autism spectrum disorder involves distortions in development of social skills and language that include perception, motor movement, attention, and reality testing. Body rocking for extended periods suggests autism spectrum disorder. The distracters are expected findings for a 3-year-old. 15. A 4-year-old cries for 5 minutes when the parents leave the child at preschool. The parents ask the nurse, “What should we do?” Select the nurse’s best response. d. “Give your child a kiss before you leave the preschool program.” ANS: D The child demonstrates age-appropriate behavior for a 4-year-old. The nurse should reassure the parents. The distracters are over-reactions. 16. Which assessment finding would cause the nurse to consider a child to be most at risk for the development of mental illness? a. The child has been raised by a parent with chronic major depression. ANS: A Children raised by a depressed parent have an increased risk of developing an emotional disorder. Familial risk factors correlate with child psychiatric disorders, including severe marital discord, low socioeconomic status, large families and overcrowding, parental criminality, maternal psychiatric disorders, and foster-care placement. The chronicity of the parent’s depression means it has been a consistent stressor. The other factors are not as risk- enhancing. 17. The child prescribed an antipsychotic medication to manage violent behavior is one most likely diagnosed with: a. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ANS: A Antipsychotic medication is useful for managing aggressive or violent behavior in some children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. If medication were prescribed for a child with an anxiety disorder, it would be a benzodiazepine. Medications are generally not needed for children with communication disorder. Treatment of PTSD is more often associated with SSRI medications. 18. A child reports to the school nurse of being verbally bullied by an aggressive classmate. What is the nurse’s best first action? b. Encourage the victimized child to share feelings about the experience. ANS: B The behaviors by the bullying child create emotional pain and present the risk for physical pain. The nurse should first listen to the child’s complaints and validate the child for reporting the events. Later, school authorities should be notified. School administrators are the most appropriate personnel to deal with the bullying child. The behavior should not be ignored; it will only get worse. 19. Assessment data for a 7-year-old reveals an inability to take turns, blurting out answers to questions before a question is complete, and frequently interrupting others’ conversations. How should the nurse document these behaviors? c. Impulsivity ANS: C These behaviors are most directly related to impulsivity. Hyperactive behaviors are more physical in nature, such as running, pushing, and the inability to sit. Inattention is demonstrated by failure to listen. Defiance is demonstrated by willfully doing what an authority figure has said not to do. 20. A child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows hyperactivity, aggression, and impaired play. The health care provider prescribed amphetamine salts (Adderall). The nurse should monitor for which desired behavior? c. Improved abilities to participate in cooperative play with other children ANS: C The goal is improvement in the child’s hyperactivity, aggression, and play. The remaining options are more relevant for a child with intellectual development disorder or an anxiety disorder. 21. When group therapy is prescribed as a treatment modality, the nurse would suggest placement of a 9-year-old in a group that uses: c. play and talk about a play activity. ANS: C Group therapy for young children takes the form of play. For elementary school children, therapy combines play and talk about the activity. For adolescents, group therapy involves more talking. 22. Which child demonstrates behaviors indicative of a neurodevelopmental disorder? d. ANS: D A 3-year-old who is mute, passive toward adults, and twirls while walking Symptoms consistent with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are evident in the correct answer. Autistic spectrum disorder is one type of neurodevelopmental disorder. The behaviors of the other children are within normal ranges. 23. The parent of a child diagnosed with Tourette’s disorder says to the nurse, “I think my child is faking the tics because they come and go.” Which response by the nurse is accurate? c. “Tics often change frequency or severity. That doesn’t mean they aren’t real.” ANS: C Tics are sudden, rapid, involuntary, repetitive movements or vocalizations characteristic of Tourette’s disorder. They often fluctuate in frequency, severity, and are reduced or absent during sleep. 24. When a 5-year-old is disruptive, the nurse says, “You must take a time-out.” The expectation is that the child will: c. sit on the edge of the activity until able to regain self-control. ANS: C Time-out is designed so that staff can be consistent in their interventions. Time-out may require going to a designated room or sitting on the periphery of an activity until the child gains selfcontrol and reviews the episode with a staff member. Time-out may not require going to a designated room and does not involve special attention such as holding. Counting to 10 or 20 is not sufficient. 25. A parent diagnosed with schizophrenia and 13-year-old child live in a homeless shelter. The child formed a trusting relationship with a shelter volunteer. The child says, “My three friends and I got an A on our school science project.” The nurse can assess that the child: a. displays resiliency. ANS: A Resiliency enables a child to handle the stresses of a difficult childhood. Resilient children can adapt to changes in the environment, take advantage of nurturing relationships with adults other than parents, distance themselves from emotional chaos occurring within the family, learn, and use problem-solving skills. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. A nurse prepares to lead a discussion at a community health center regarding children’s health problems. The nurse wants to use current terminology when discussing these issues. Which terms are appropriate for the nurse to use? Select all that apply. a. Autism b. Bullying c. Mental retardation d. Autism spectrum disorder e. Intellectual development disorder ANS: B, D, E Some dated terminology contributes to the stigma of mental illness and misconceptions about mental illness. It’s important for the nurse to use current terminology. 2. A nurse prepares the plan of care for a 15-year-old diagnosed with moderate intellectual developmental disorder. What are the highest outcomes that are realistic for this patient? Within 5 years, the patient will: (select all that apply) a. graduate from high school. b. live independently in an apartment. c. independently perform own personal hygiene. d. obtain employment in a local sheltered workshop. e. correctly use public buses to travel in the community. ANS: C, D, E Individuals with moderate intellectual developmental disorder progress academically to about the second grade. These people can learn to travel in familiar areas and perform unskilled or semiskilled work. With supervision, the person can function in the community, but independent living is not likely. 3. At the time of a home visit, the nurse notices that each parent and child in a family has his or her own personal online communication device. Each member of the family is in a different area of the home. Which nursing actions are appropriate? Select all that apply. a. Report the finding to the official child protection social services agency. b. Educate all members of the family about risks associated with cyberbullying. c. Talk with the parents about parental controls on the children’s communication devices. d. Encourage the family to schedule daily time together without communication devices. e. Obtain the family’s network password and examine online sites family members have visited. ANS: B, C, D Education and awareness-based approaches have a chance of effectively reducing harmful online behavior, including risks associated with cyberbullying. Parental controls on the children’s devices will support safe Internet use. Family time together will promote healthy bonding and a sense of security among members. There is no evidence of danger to the children, so a report to child protective agency is unnecessary. It would be inappropriate to seek the family’s network password and an invasion of privacy to inspect sites family members have visited. Chapter 33. Children and Adolescents Multiple Choice 1. Which developmental characteristic should a nurse identify as typical of a client diagnosed with severe intellectual disability? D. The client communicates wants and needs by acting out behaviors. ANS: D The nurse should identify that a client diagnosed with severe intellectual disability may communicate wants and needs by acting out behaviors. Severe intellectual disability indicates an IQ between 20 and 34. Individuals diagnosed with severe intellectual disability require complete supervision and have minimal verbal skills and poor psychomotor development. 2. Which nursing intervention related to self-care would be most appropriate for a teenager diagnosed with moderate intellectual disability? B. Providing simple directions and praising clients independent self-care efforts ANS: B Providing simple directions and praise is an appropriate intervention for a teenager diagnosed with moderate intellectual disability. Individuals with moderate intellectual disability can perform some activities independently and may be capable of academic skill to a second-grade level. 3. A child has been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The distraught mother cries out, Im such a terrible mother. What did I do to cause this? Which nursing reply is most appropriate? B. Poor parenting doesnt cause autism. Research has shown that abnormalities in brain structure and/or function are to blame. This is beyond your control. ANS: B The most appropriate reply by the nurse is to explain to the parent that autism spectrum disorder is believed to be caused by abnormalities in brain structure and/or function, not poor parenting. Autism spectrum disorder occurs in approximately 6 per 1,000 children and is about four times more likely to occur in boys. 4. In planning care for a child diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder, which would be a realistic client outcome? C. The client will establish trust with at least one caregiver by day 5. ANS: C The most realistic client outcome for a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is for the client to establish trust with at least one caregiver. Trust should be evidenced by facial responsiveness and eye contact. This outcome relates to the nursing diagnosis impaired social interaction. 5. After an adolescent diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) begins methylphenidate (Ritalin) therapy, a nurse notes that the adolescent loses 10 pounds in a 2-month period. What is the best explanation for this weight loss? A. The pharmacological action of Ritalin causes a decrease in appetite. ANS: A The pharmacological action of Ritalin causes a decrease in appetite that often leads to weight loss. Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is a central nervous symptom stimulant that serves to increase attention span, control hyperactive behaviors, and improve learning ability for clients diagnosed with ADHD. 6. An adolescent client who was diagnosed with conduct disorder at the age of 8 is sentenced to juvenile detention after bringing a gun to school. How should the nurse apply knowledge of conduct disorder to this clients situation? A. Childhood-onset conduct disorder is more severe than the adolescent-onset type, and these individuals likely develop antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. ANS: A The nurse should apply knowledge of conduct disorder to determine that childhood-onset conduct disorder is more severe than adolescent-onset type. These individuals are likely to develop antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Individuals with this subtype are usually boys and frequently display physical aggression and have disturbed peer relationships. 7. Which finding would be most likely in a child diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder? B. The childs mother is diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. ANS: B The nurse should expect to find a ...
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