Page 1 Pituitary (AP + PP) and Pineal Glands09 •Introduction to hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal function. •Posterior pituitary hormones (OT, AVP) and their secretion, function and regulation. Countercurrent mechanism and the effect of AVP on collecting ducts. Mechanism of action and control of AVP secretion: osmotic stimulation, baroregulation, additional cellular actions. AVP pathologies: hypothalamic / nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DI), SIADH, gene mutation in familial DI. •Anterior pituitary melanotropic hormones (ßEND, MSH) and their secretion, function and regulation. MSH effects on pigmentation and food intake, species variability, regulation, rhytms, receptors, mechanism of action. ßEND central and peripheral effects, action mechanism. •Pineal hormones (melatonin) and their secretion, function and regulation. Melatonin: biosynthesis, N-acetyl transferase activity and rhytms, light - dark cycle, physiological functions, sleep, behavioral rhythmicity, reproduction, thermoregulation. IntroductionHormones and “story lines” Components of a hormone response system. Responses produced by hormones generally are sensed by whatever apparatus activated the secretion and usually decrease further secretion.
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