Pituitary (AP + PP)
and Pineal Glands
Introduction to hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal function.
Posterior pituitary hormones (OT, AVP) and their secretion, function
and regulation. Countercurrent mechanism
and the effect of AVP on
collecting ducts. Mechanism of action and control of AVP secretion:
osmotic stimulation, baroregulation, additional cellular actions. AVP
pathologies: hypothalamic / nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DI),
SIADH, gene mutation in familial DI.
Anterior pituitary melanotropic hormones (ßEND, MSH) and their
secretion, function and regulation. MSH effects on pigmentation and
food intake, species variability, regulation, rhytms, receptors,
mechanism of action. ßEND central and peripheral effects, action
Pineal hormones (melatonin) and their secretion, function and
regulation. Melatonin: biosynthesis, N-acetyl transferase activity and
rhytms, light - dark cycle, physiological functions, sleep, behavioral
rhythmicity, reproduction, thermoregulation.
Hormones and “story lines”
Components of a hormone response system. Responses produced
by hormones generally are sensed by whatever apparatus activated
the secretion and usually decrease further secretion.