601. Stephen A. Douglas
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
602. Popular Sovereignty
The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act,
popular sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
622. Election of 1860: candidates, parties, issues
Republican - Abraham Lincoln. Democrat - Stephan A. Douglas, John C. Breckenridge. Constitutional Union - John Bell. Issues were
slavery in the territories (Lincoln opposed adding any new slave states).
623. Democratic Party Conventions: Baltimore, Charleston
The Democratic Party split North and South. The Northern Democratic convention was held in Baltimore and the Southern in
Charleston. Douglas was the Northern candidate and Breckenridge was the Southern (they disagreed on slavery).
624. John Bell
He was a moderate and wanted the union to stay together. After Southern states seceded from the Union, he urged the middle states to
join the North.
625. John Breckinridge (1821-1875)
Nominated by pro-slavers who had seceded from the Democratic convention, he was strongly for slavery and states' rights.
626. Republican Party: 1860 platform, supporter, leaders
1860 platform: free soil principles, a protective tariff. Supporters: anti-slavers, business, agriculture. Leaders: William M. Seward,
627. Buchanan and the Secession Crisis
After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided
to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.
628. Crittenden Compromise proposal
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill
offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with
existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
629. Border states
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
630. South's advantages in the Civil War
Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war
and only needed to keep the North out of their states to win. Also had the nation's best military leaders, and most of the existing
military equipment and supplies.
631. North's advantages in the Civil War
Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and
supplies, which eventually outstripped the South's initial material advantage.
632. Fort Sumter