Horticulture notes - Horticulture 2000 September 7 Plant Growth Photosynthesis Respiration The main components of most plants carbon(40 oxygen(45

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Horticulture 2000 September 7 Plant Growth: Photosynthesis, Respiration, The main components of most plants: carbon(40%), oxygen(45%), hydrogen Photosynthesis Plants get almost all their carbon, oxygen and hydrogen from photosynthesis Photosynthesis provides growth Photo=light refers to the use of light to produce plant materials or sugars Why does it matter? provides the oxygen to breath Consumes much of the CO2 Food, energy(fossil fuels), fibers and materials Formula: 6 CO2+6 H2O+light > C6H12O6+6 O2 plant uses glucose for growth Light Absorption and Photosynthesis chlorophyll in the chloroplasts absorb light Properties of Light narrow band of light waves- photons red and blue light is absorbed while green is reflected visible light occurs in a spectrum of colors light moves in waves, in energy units called PHOTONS. Energy of a photon is inversely proportional to its wavelength Types of Photosynthesis C3: The majority of plants (regular photosynthesis process) C4: (corn and grasses) it has the ability to hang on to CO2, hold it in and then release it at a later time. CAM: stoma open during night, advantage in arid climates, Ex: cacti September 9 Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Transpiration -The goal in horticulture is to capture light energy and transform it into usable, salable product (meaning making the plants grow to their full capacity) Factors that affect photosynthesis light CO2- increase helps the photosynthesis but then stabilizes water temperature- goes up to a point that helps photosynthesis. but too much is negative Respiration- the process of making the energy of food available in the cell.
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taking the glucose made in photosynthesis and breaking it down to what plant can use to make energy. All happens in the stomate Transpiration- transportation of minerals from the soil to the plant cooling the plant through evaporation moving sugars and plant chemicals maintaining turgor pressure most of the water obtained is lost. the plant cant hold it. about 10% Factors that affect Transpiration leaf shape size pores waxiness of leaf September 12 Plant Reproduction Asexual- entire plants or plant parts form the next generation Sexual- specialized cells, gametes, unite through fertilization to produce the next gen- eration Asexual Advantages- you get an exact duplicate of the parent (clone). Some seeds are hard to germinate Totipotency- every cell in the plant has inherent genetic ability to reproduce the entire plant Two Anomalies in the Plant word: Apomixis and Parthenocarpy Apomoxis (asexual reproduction) Embryo formation without fertiklization genetic clone of the mother is produced advantages: no pollinators are required, avoid male energy Disadvantages: accumulation of deleterious genetic mutations, no adaptations to changing environment Parthenocarpy (sexual Reproduction) literally means virgin fruit production of fruit without fertilization Sexual Reproduction
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2011 for the course HORT 2000 taught by Professor Berle during the Fall '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Horticulture notes - Horticulture 2000 September 7 Plant Growth Photosynthesis Respiration The main components of most plants carbon(40 oxygen(45

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