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Unformatted text preview: General-Specific Texts
Audience 1 Audience
Background knowledge presumed
Text A targets an educated, but not highly specialized,
It provides a lot of background material and is careful
to avoid too much technical vocabulary.
It is an article from Scientific American.
Text B is directed at experts.
It jumps right into the topic and employs quite a lot
of technical terminology that most of us are not
It is an article taken from the AIChE Journal.
Text A: coordinate sentences
Text B: complex sentences
Text Use of technical terms
Text A: minimal use of technical terms
Text B: lots of technical terms
Text Check your own RP.
3 Task Eight
4 Task Nine
1. created / developed / proposed / produced
2. encountered / faced
3. raised / introduced / mentioned / discussed
4. appeared / emerged / materialized / surfaced
5. examined / investigated / analyzed /
considered / studied / scrutinized
considered 5 Online dictionaries and corpora
Your Dictionary: www.yourdictionary.com
?key=50718&dict=CALD 6 Just the Word:
British National Corpus:
http://research.iwillnow.org/project/bncrce/ 7 Task Ten (p. 21)
7. have insufficient
8. rarely occur
9. enlarged to facilitate loading and
unloading 8 Task Twelve
1. This model can be used to analyze the effects
of several parameter changes.
2. Coffee prices have fallen for many reasons.
3. The differences between these two
approaches to designing underground subway
stations can clearly be seen.
4. Recent research has shown that the arms are
commonly used for protection during a fall to
9 Task Twelve
5. To date, no comprehensive study has
examined the role of smiling in gaining the initial
trust of individuals.
6. Some studies have concluded that bamboo
could be more widely used than it is now as a
7. These special tax laws have been enacted in
six midwestern states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Ohio, Michigan, and Minnesota.
8. Little research has been done on the use of
oil palm shell as coarse aggregate in the
production of concrete.
10 Task Seventeen
According to a recent survey, 26% of all
American adults, down from 38% 30 years
ago, now smoke. This _______________
can be partly attributed to the mounting
evidence linking smoking and fatal
diseases, such as cancer.
improvement: highly evaluative; persuasive
(not in expository rhetoric)
*drop: time frame is 30 years.
11 Task Seventeen
Early in September each year, the population of
Ann Arbor, Michigan, suddenly increases by
about 20,000 students arrive for the new
academic year. This _______________ changes
the character of the town in a number of ways.
increase: tame (nonstudent population of the town is
jump: strange (increase is maintained)
This is a difficult one. If you didn’t get this, it’s OK.
12 Task Seventeen
Nowadays, laptop computers are lighter,
more powerful, and easier to use than
they were five years ago. These
_______________ have led to an increase
in the sales of these machines.
improvements > developments; advances
13 Task Eighteen
The traditional economic and consumer
behavior models assume a rational,
thoughtful consumer who gathers
information about a good and then
carefully makes a purchase. This view has
recently been challenged, particularly
because of the growing number of
14 Task Eighteen
Our pilot study has shown that wind
turbines used to generate electricity can
pose a threat to flying birds. This finding
suggests a need for further research on
improving the safety of these mechanisms.
15 Task Eighteen
In soccer, goalkeepers routinely wear
gloves that may restrict heat loss from the
hands and cause discomfort. In order to
alleviate this problem, special materials,
called phase control materials (PCMs),
have been incorporated into gloves to
reduce the amount of hear inside the
glove, thus maintaining a comfortable
16 Task Eighteen
Normal average human skin temperature
is 37 degrees Celsius. At any lower
environmental temperature, hear will be
lost from the skin to the environment as
the body attempts to heat up the air in
direct contact with the body. This process
is known as conduction. 17
17 Task Eighteen
Until adjustment of the body clock has
occurred, individuals suffering from “jet
lag” feel tired during the new daytime, yet
are unable to sleep properly during the
new night. For athletes in particular this
disruption of sleep can affect mood and
powers of concentration and might result
in poorer training performances and
competition results (Reilly et al. 1997).
18 Task Eighteen
Until recently, the support needs of frail
older people in Sweden have been met
primarily by the state, with there being
little expectation that the family would
provide care. This situation iis now
changing as increasing emphasis is being
placed on the role of the family.
19 Task Nineteen
Irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa is in most
cases performed using a rope and bucket
to raise and distribute water from a
shallow open well. While this
_______________ has the advantage of
being inexpensive, its low capacity and
labor-iintensive nature is decidedly a
20 Task Nineteen
Motor vehicle deaths in the U.S. declined from
nearly 60,000 in 1966 to just over 40,000 last
year, even though Americans drive millions more
miles now and millions more vehicles are on the
road. The death rate, which was 7.6 deaths per
100 million miles in 1950, declined from 5.5 in
1966 to 1.6 last year. This _______________
can be attributed to the manufacture of safer
vehicles, with features such as airbags and
21 Task Nineteen
Haigney concludes from his study that
driving performance decreases when
drivers use their cell phones. This
______________ is consistent with recent
reviews of the literature on driving
22 Task Nineteen
Although it seems that the construction of
new roads and widening of existing roads
should reduce traffic congestion, recent
research has shown that these activities
actually lead to increases in traffic. This
_______________ is known as the
“induced traffic” effect.
23 Task Nineteen
In 1900 average life expectancy at birth was 47
years for individuals born in developed countries.
In 1950 life expectancy was nearly 68. For
newborns today life expectancy is about 77
years. This _______________, however, does
not mean that humans are undergoing some
physiological change. Rather, it is a result of
advances in medicine and technology.
24 Task Twenty-two
The discovery of fossil fuels has had a big
effect on the development of cities. The
use of the automobile has become the
most important element supporting the
modern society. And, since a few decades
ago, the finiteness of natural resources
has been a source of heated controversy.
The cities and their development will
certainly be affected.
25 Task Twenty-two
A greater focus on accessible public
transportation has been one change in
current urban planning discussions. It iis
widely believed that there will be an effort
to redesign cities in order to promote the
use of public transportation.
26 Task Twenty-three
There is considerable doubt whether this
solution will be effective. The initial
reaction to the report has not been
complimentary. In fact many observers
believe that collapse of the system is
27 Positioning: Task 24
Choosing any writing style that you like
Expressing enthusiasm and commitment
This should be discouraged, although there
are cases where it can be highly successful.
are Writing in a formal academic style
Making broad generalizations
Being cautious about generalizations
28 Using references to support your points
Writing mainly from experience and personal
Graduate students should refrain from overreliance on
personal Reevaluating the work of authorities in the field
This should be done with balance. One should avoid
an all-out attack. Always allow for “praise where
praise is due.”
praise Showing an awareness of the “hot” iissues in
29 General-Specific texts
Ideas, Arguments, and organizing your
Review of Relative Clauses 30
30 Writing General-Specific Texts
A common structure in academic writing—
An overview of short and extended
Definitions and generalizations can be
used to begin a GS text
31 General-specific texts
Common in graduate student writing
Often used as introductions for longer
pieces of writing
They have a structure similar to an
inverted triangle. They start out broadly,
become more specific, and then end with
a broad statement.
32 General statement
Detail in support of the
More Broader statement
33 General-specific texts
General-specific texts usually begin with
one of the following:
a short or extended definition
a contrastive or comparative definition
a generalization or a purpose statement
a statement of fact
Do Task One.
34 Selling Cities
could have been
an answer to an essay question
the opening paragraph to a longer assignment
an assignment focusing on the advantages and
disadvantages of this kind of economic activity
disadvantages It began with a general statement, which
happened to include a definition.
General statements of fact can be useful starting
35 General statements
general statements of fact
broad statements made about a topic
In the last decade, tremendous strides have
been made in the science and technology of
organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).
Over the years interest in the economic benefits
of meetings tourism has been growing.
Some support or explanation should be offered
after a general statement is made.
reference to earlier work
reference Although Chinese has the greatest number of
speakers, English is the most widely distributed
language in the world today. The position
derives from the fact that English is widely
taught as a second language in schools and
widely used in international communication.
37 starting with a generalization
In comparison to many of the world’s
better-known languages, English is
relatively new. Indeed, the English of 600
years ago can be understood only by
38 starting with a definition
English is a language that belongs to the
West Germanic subgroup of the IndoWest
European language family. It began its
history as a distinct tongue in England
around 500 A.D.
40 General statements 41
41 General statement
The Internet handles the real-time media
transmission requirement by introducing a
new protocol known as the real-time
transport protocol (RTP), which is built on
top of the already-existing user diagram
42 General statement
Network users are demanding better
quality of service guarantees for their
traffic, which cannot be achieved by
means of per-flow QoS mechanisms due
flow QoS mechanisms
to their lack of scalability. An answer to
this challenge is an aggregate class-based
traffic management framework, . . .
43 General statement
In the last few years, voice over IP (VoIP)
applications have faced a huge increase in
popularity, in particular . . .
In many organizations connected to the
Internet, very restrictive firewalls are
commonly adopted by network managers
in an effort to give a better security to the
internal network . . .
44 General statement
Application identification and classification have
been the focus of recent related work.
Due to the huge popularity achieved by Skype in
the last few years, analysis of the Skype protocol
and characteristics have been the focus of
recent related work.
VoIP applications based on P2P networks have
become very popular in recent years. The main
causes of their success are . . .
45 General statement
Location of faults in overhead power lines
for the inspection-repair purpose has been
the subject of interest to researchers and
utilities personnel for more than 50 years.
In this work, the new accurate algorithm
for locating faults on a power transmission
line with the use of . . . has been
46 Sugeno-type fuzzy control iis one of the most popular
and promising research platforms in the model-based
fuzzy control. Sugeno-type fuzzy control iis based on
the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy system and the theoretic
research studies on the issue have been conducted
actively by many fuzzy control theorists.
Fuzzy control technique represents a means of
collecting human knowledge and expertise. It has been
applied to various industrial fields. Although the
method has been practically successful, it has proved
extremely difficult to develop a general analysis and
design theory for conventional fuzzy control
systems. . . .
T-S fuzzy control system iis one of the most popular
and promising research platforms in the model-based
fuzzy control. A general class of nonlinear systems can
be represented by the T-S fuzzy model which is
described by a set of fuzzy IF-THEN rules. . . .
A definition sets the boundaries for a word’s
Terms can have various meanings depending on the
e.g., particularly cold, tone
e.g., full-sentence definitions
definition is incorporated within sentence
short, parenthetical additions to a sentence
e.g., in textbooks
48 Extent of a definition
purpose of the paper
level of familiarity of audience
extent to which there is an agreed upon
definition of the concept
You may begin to recognize definitions as
you read material in your own fields.
49 Common ways to define in AW
lexical or phrasal
placed within parentheses or commas
placed e.g., i.e., known as, defined as, called
e.g., sentence definitions
brief, like a dictionary definition
brief, extended definitions
longer and more detailed
50 Defining and Naming
This new species was named Ascochyta
mycoparasitica. denote (restricted to notations)
Any rotational velocity is usually denoted by f.
Any vector in this paper will be denoted by a bold
letter. call (for introducing new information)
This new method is called activity-based costing, or
The configuration in Fig. 15 may be called a twocalled
dimensional corner reflector.
51 Defining and Naming
refer (for terminological explanations)
defined as (widely used, safe option)
For the purposes of this study, fast food is
defined as food sold by a franchised restaurant
chain offering both dining and take-out facilities
with no “table” service (e.g., McDonald’s).
One important product attribute is perceived
product sophistication, which I define as the
degree to which a product exhibits the latest
52 general statement/definition
The control consists of two components—the
fuzzy-based component and the augmented
component. The fuzzy-based component uses a
fuzzy logic controller to maintain . . . .
Under the fuzzy-based component, the allocated
bandwidth Ck iis adjusted at time instant tk, k=0,
1, 2, 3, . . ., where Ck is held constant over (tk,
tk +1). The length of is called the control time
interval, which need not be a fixed constant.
53 general statement/definition
Fuzzy control consists of three main
steps—fuzzification, iinference, and
defuzzification. In the fuzzification step, a
real number representing a feedback
value is converted to linguistic values, . . .
Fuzzification iis the process of translating
real number inputs of each feedback
variable. . . .
54 general statement/definition
Among the P2P VoIP applications that
adopt the strategy of . . ., Skype iis of
particular importance due to its huge
popularity. Skype is a very popular VoIP
application with a propriety closed-source
protocol and encrypted end-to-end traffic.
Skype can easily work in many different
network environments . . .
55 general statement/definition
In order to present our results, we use
ROC curves. ROC iis the acronym for
receiver operating characteristic, a
graphical representation of the efficiency
measured for a given binary classifier. The
ROC curve of a detection system
shows . . .
56 The LMS controller iis a model-free controller
developed in the context of statistical signal
processing, as shown in Fig. 1. The adaptive
LMS BW controller predicts currently available
BW solely based on output observations e(k). It
treats the entire Internet as one massive
Internet protocol (IP) cloud, with the sender and
receiver as well-defined respective entry and exit
points. . . .
57 OpenMP iis an Application Program
Interface (API), which was defined by a
group of computer hardware and software
vendors. The API iis a collection of
compiler directives, library routines and
environment and is commonly used to
enable compilers for making multienable
threaded coding simpler.
58 Formal sentence definitions
The term being defined is first assigned to
a class or group to which it belongs and
then distinguished from other terms in the
The class word is a superordinate—a
category word one level of generality
above the term.
technique, method, process, device, system
59 Formal sentence definitions
Dental erosion is defined as a progressive loss of
hard dental tissues by a chemical process
without bacterial action.
Dentists define dental erosion as a progressive
loss of hard dental tissues by a chemical process
called bacterial action.
highlights dentists (or a particular group using the
60 This variant of the efficiency wage
hypothesis is known as the shirking model.
The shirking model is a variant of the
efficiency wage hypothesis.
61 Dalle de verre, commonly referred to as
Dalle de verre commonly
faceted glass, is a thick, modern cast glass,
which is used in concrete-set windows.
Dalle de verre, a kind of faceted glass, is a
Dalle de verre kind
thick, modern cast glass which is used in
62 In the three sentences above, the activeIn
form definitions come across as being
more generally accepted definitions in the
63 Formal sentence definitions
A sole proprietorship is a business which is
owned and operated by one individual for
A partnership is a business which is owned
by two or more individuals for personal
64 Formal sentence definitions
A star is a celestial body that shines by
itself and whose source of energy is
nuclear fusion occurring in its core.
A comet is a celestial body of small mass
which consists mainly of gases and moves
in an elliptical path under the influence of
the sun’s gravity.
65 Formal sentence definitions
Annealing iis a metalworking process in which a
material is subjected to elevated temperatures
for a period of time to cause structural or
electrical changes in its properties.
Wielding iis a metalworking process in which
separate pieces of metal are joined together by
means of heat to form a continuous metallic
66 Formal sentence definitions
Kava is a Pacific shrub whose dried
rhizome and roots can be ground, grated,
and steeped in water to produce a nonand
Hybrid excited machine iis a motor or
generator, which contains permanent
magnets and field windings on its rotor.
67 Grammar of definitions
A [term defined] iis a [class] [wh-]
A disinfectant is an agent capable of destroying diseasean
any representative of this term will fit in the assigned class
any A disinfectant is the agent capable of destroying
other previously-mentioned agents are not capable . . .
other Phonetics is the study of speech sounds.
Do Task Seven.
68 category: a group that shares some significant
Each of our students falls into one of three categories.
Each component: a part which combines with other parts to
crate something bigger
Milk is an essential component of any young child’s diet.
Milk existence: the fact that something or someone is or
The existence of ‘dark matter’ iin the universe was first proposed
in feature: typical part or quality
Effective use of metaphor is a feature of the poet’s style.
69 hierarchy: system in which people or things are arranged
according to their importance or power
Humans can be described as being at the top of a hierarchy with
amoebas on the bottom level.
amoebas nature: type or main characteristic of something
The nature of her work means that she is under a lot of stress.
The structure: the way in which the parts of a system are
In this unit we shall be looking at the structure of the heart.
In type: group with similar characteristics, a smaller
division of a larger set
The lion is one type of large cat.
70 There is an enormous variety/diversity of living
things (or organisms).
To help study them, biologists have devised
ways of naming and classifying them according
to their similarities and differences.
The system most scientists use puts each living
thing into seven groups organized from most
general to most specific.
71 Therefore, each species belongs to a genus.
Each genus belongs to a family.
Each family belongs to an order, etc.
Each Species are the smallest groups.
A species consists of all the animals of the same
type who are able to breed and produce young
of the same kind.
Each species is distinct from all other species.
Biologists allocate all organisms to a position in
72 When categorizing people, it is often necessary
to take age, gender, social class, occupation,
marital status, and ethnic backgrounds into
It may also be appropriate to consider the
Age, for example, is important in that different
generations tend to have different attitudes and
73 Social class can be described in different ways.
The term blue collar may be used to mean
White collar denotes middle class.
The categories of student, homemaker, and
senior citizen, as well as types of employment
are subsumed under the heading of occupation
or occupational background/status.
74 It is hard to _______________ between these
two _______________ plants. They hardly
_______________ at all.
The professor persuaded the university to
_______________ more resources into his
There are some magnificent _______________
passages in the writer’s later novels.
In your essay comment on the
_______________ and the _______________
between the two poems.
75 It is difficult to categorize human emotions as
we know little about their basic
Sensation and action can both be included
under the term behavior.
Linguists allocate all languages to a place in
the system of language families, based on their
grammars and other key aspects.
The atmosphere of the planet consists of
City and country people often differ in their
political attitudes. Whether one is married or
single is also a relevant factor.
76 Deletion and when to delete
A theater is a building specifically
designed for dramatic performances.
A theater is a building that is specifically
designed for dramatic performances.
rel pron + passive verb
77 When to delete
rel pron + to be + prep
rel pron + to be + ADJ-able
In dentistry, enamel is a hard, white inorganic
material that is on the crown of a tooth.
A robot is a multiprogrammable device which is
capable of performing the work of a human.
78 Changing word form
rel pron + has
with A parliament is a national governing body
which has the highest level of legislative
power within a state.
A parliament is a national governing body
with the highest level of legislative power
within a state.
79 Changing word form
rel pron + active verb (V-ing)
A moon is a natural satellite which orbits
around a planet.
A moon is a natural satellite orbiting
around a planet. 80
80 Modal auxiliary
In human resource management, a shock
is a sudden and unexpected event that
may cause employees to think about how
the event will affect their jobs.
81 In Sentences 6 and 9, the relative clause
presents or describes a function of the
There is a process, not a constant state.
The verbs cause and speed up are related
to the process, not to a final state.
82 If the relative pronoun is preceded by a
preposition, which must be used.
This is common in formal academic writing.
These clauses cannot be reduced.
A foundation is a base on which a
structure can be built.
by means of which
84 A microscope is an object . . .
A microscope is an instrument . . .
A vowel is a sound . . .
A vowel is a speech sound . . .
85 Formal vs. less academic
A solar cell is a device that converts the energy
of sunlight into electric energy.
A solar cell is something that changes sunlight
In tissue engineering, a scaffold is a structure
onto which cells can be seeded and grown.
In tissue engineering, a scaffold is something
that cells can be seeded and grown on.
86 Circular definitions
Erosion is a process during which the surface of
the earth erodes.
Erosion is a process during which the surface of
the earth is degraded by the effects of the
atmosphere, weather, and human activity.
The four-wheel Antilock Braking System (ABS) iis
a braking system that helps provide straight,
more controlled stops during braking, while
helping the driver maintain steering control
under most road and weather conditions.
87 Avoid using when and where iin
when and where n
Pollution is when the environment
becomes contaminated as a result of
Pollution is a form of environmental
contamination resulting from human
The Renaissance was a time when . . .
88 Avoid using when and where iin
when and where n
A fault is where there is a fracture in the earth’s
crust and the rock on one side of the fracture
moves in relation to the rock on the other side.
A fault is a fracture in the Earth’s crust in which
the rock on one side of the fracture moves in
relation to the rock on the other side.
Antarctica is a place where . . .
89 Super critical fluid is a physical station
between gas phase and fluid phase when
its temperature and pressure are over the
Mineralocorticoid receptor is a protein
binding to hormones that regulates water
balance in animals.
90 We follow Basu (1997), and interprets
conservatism as resulting in earnings
reflecting “bad news” more quickly than
When a company adopts a more
conservative accounting policy, the firm
will tend to record probable losses
immediately. However probable revenues
will not be recorded until such revenues
91 Task Ten
Choose a word or phrase that assigns at least
half of the following terms of phases to a precise
semiconductor thermal toughening
(one of your own)
92 Extended definitions
to demonstrate knowledge of a concept fully.
usually begins with a general, one-sentence
becomes more specific as additional details are
may need to focus on such aspects as
components, types, application, history, or
93 Process analysis
An extended definition may also include
information regarding operating principles
or causes and effects (process analysis).
It may also include information about
many other features, such as rarity and
Problems, exceptions, and future
predictions can also be discussed.
94 Competing definitions
Sometimes a definition of a term or
concept is not fixed.
There may be competing perspectives.
A good strategy is to acknowledge some
of the different definitions.
But make clear to your reader the
definitions that you will adopt.
95 Lack of agreement
Just what the term means and how it . . .
There is a wide diversity in the use of this
term in clinical and epidemiological studies,
leading to difficulties in comparing
It seems there is little agreement on the
definitions of this concept among
96 Skeletal phrases
While debate exists regarding a precise
definition of . . ., the stance adopted in this
paper is that …
For the purposes of this paper, . . . refers to/is
defined as/is considered to be . . .
Here we define . . . as . . .
In this paper I have adopted [author’s]
definition of . . .
This paper follows [author’s] definition of . . .
Do Task Seventeen.
97 Contrastive definitions
to display knowledge about two (or more)
in contrast, however, on the other hand,
unlike (+ noun)
98 Contrastive definitions
Read the passage on page 75.
The two terms are presented
The former deals with . . ., while the latter is
concerned with . . .
99 Comparative definitions
display knowledge of the complexities
surrounding key terms in one’s field of study.
typically occur in introductory sections.
present a historical account of how a concept
has changed over time.
present an overview of how various experts
today view a concept differently.
Some basic LED driving circuits, together
with AC-DC converters.
101 There are many LED crystal grains are
packaged into the same base to form a
That is to say, one LED chip is composed
of many LED crystalline grains, i.e., many
102 LED driving circuits mentioned in the literature
need AC-DC converters or DC-DC converters,
and hence large inductors and large electrolytic
capacitors are indispensable, thereby causing
the size and weight of the equipment to be
. . . thereby increasing the size and weight of
103 The power devices, MOSFET, in general,
the energy stored in parasitic capacitance
can not be regenerated and therefore the
MOSFET voltage is still higher before
turning switch on and the voltage and
current product produce a large switching
104 ZVS uses resonant elements to discharge
the energy, which stored in parasitic
capacitance of the MOSFET.
. . ., which is stored in parasitic
capacitance of the MOSFET.
105 For this behavior the voltage and the
current product closed to zero, it can
improve the performance of hard
106 Regarding the sun as the energy is the
The energy originating from the sun is
107 Their operational characteristics depend
on the incident sun light intensity, surface
temperature, ambient temperature, and
current flow varies. 108
108 Its character curve will be change and the
relative maximum power point will be
Its character curve, as well as the
relative maximum power point, will be
109 Therefore we must apply a suitable
control method that photovoltaic solar
panels operation in the best operating
110 A BLDC motor has permanent magnets
which rotate and a fixed armature.
A BLDC motor has permanent rotating
magnets and a fixed armature. 111
111 Limitations of brushed DC motors
overcome by BLDC motors include . . .
BLDC motors can overcome the
limitations of brushed DC motors,
including . . .
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2011 for the course EECS 000 taught by Professor Hero during the Spring '06 term at National Taipei University.
- Spring '06