GenSpec Texts - General-Specific Texts Audience 1 Audience...

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Unformatted text preview: General-Specific Texts Audience 1 Audience Background knowledge presumed Background Text A targets an educated, but not highly specialized, audience. audience. It provides a lot of background material and is careful to avoid too much technical vocabulary. to It is an article from Scientific American. Scientific Text B is directed at experts. Text It jumps right into the topic and employs quite a lot of technical terminology that most of us are not familiar with. familiar It is an article taken from the AIChE Journal. AIChE 2 Audience Sentence complexity Sentence Text A: coordinate sentences Text Text B: complex sentences Text Use of technical terms Use Text A: minimal use of technical terms Text Text B: lots of technical terms Text Check your own RP. Check 3 Task Eight 1. caused 1. 2. investigating 2. 3. determine 3. 4. developed 4. 5. constitute 5. 6. eliminate 6. 7. reached 7. 8. maintain 8. 9. decreased 9. 10. reviews 10. 4 Task Nine 1. created / developed / proposed / produced 1. 2. encountered / faced 2. 3. raised / introduced / mentioned / discussed 3. 4. appeared / emerged / materialized / surfaced / arose arose 5. examined / investigated / analyzed / considered / studied / scrutinized considered 5 Online dictionaries and corpora Your Dictionary: www.yourdictionary.com Cambridge: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp ?key=50718&dict=CALD 6 Just the Word: Just http://193.133.140.102/JustTheWord/ Corpus Concordance: http://www.lextutor.ca/concordancers/conc ord_e.html British National Corpus: http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/ I WILL: http://research.iwillnow.org/project/bncrce/ 7 Task Ten (p. 21) 6. intensified 6. 7. have insufficient 7. 8. rarely occur 8. 9. enlarged to facilitate loading and unloading unloading 8 Task Twelve 1. This model can be used to analyze the effects of several parameter changes. of 2. Coffee prices have fallen for many reasons. 2. 3. The differences between these two approaches to designing underground subway stations can clearly be seen. stations 4. Recent research has shown that the arms are commonly used for protection during a fall to the ground. the 9 Task Twelve 5. To date, no comprehensive study has examined the role of smiling in gaining the initial trust of individuals. trust 6. Some studies have concluded that bamboo could be more widely used than it is now as a construction material. construction 7. These special tax laws have been enacted in six midwestern states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, midwestern states: Ohio, Michigan, and Minnesota. Ohio, 8. Little research has been done on the use of oil palm shell as coarse aggregate in the production of concrete. production 10 10 Task Seventeen According to a recent survey, 26% of all American adults, down from 38% 30 years ago, now smoke. This _______________ can be partly attributed to the mounting evidence linking smoking and fatal diseases, such as cancer. diseases, improvement: highly evaluative; persuasive (not in expository rhetoric) (not *drop: time frame is 30 years. *drop: 11 11 Task Seventeen Early in September each year, the population of Ann Arbor, Michigan, suddenly increases by about 20,000 students arrive for the new academic year. This _______________ changes the character of the town in a number of ways. the increase: tame (nonstudent population of the town is about 90,000) about invasion: journalistic invasion: jump: strange (increase is maintained) jump: rise, influx rise, This is a difficult one. If you didn’t get this, it’s OK. This 12 12 Task Seventeen Nowadays, laptop computers are lighter, more powerful, and easier to use than they were five years ago. These _______________ have led to an increase in the sales of these machines. in changes: uninformative changes: improvements > developments; advances improvements 13 13 Task Eighteen The traditional economic and consumer behavior models assume a rational, thoughtful consumer who gathers information about a good and then carefully makes a purchase. This view has has recently been challenged, particularly because of the growing number of consumer choices. consumer 14 14 Task Eighteen Our pilot study has shown that wind turbines used to generate electricity can pose a threat to flying birds. This finding suggests a need for further research on suggests improving the safety of these mechanisms. improving 15 15 Task Eighteen In soccer, goalkeepers routinely wear gloves that may restrict heat loss from the hands and cause discomfort. In order to alleviate this problem, special materials, special called phase control materials (PCMs), called ), have been incorporated into gloves to reduce the amount of hear inside the glove, thus maintaining a comfortable temperature. temperature. 16 16 Task Eighteen Normal average human skin temperature is 37 degrees Celsius. At any lower environmental temperature, hear will be lost from the skin to the environment as the body attempts to heat up the air in direct contact with the body. This process is known as conduction. 17 17 Task Eighteen Until adjustment of the body clock has occurred, individuals suffering from “jet jet lag” feel tired during the new daytime, yet lag feel are unable to sleep properly during the new night. For athletes in particular this disruption of sleep can affect mood and of powers of concentration and might result in poorer training performances and competition results (Reilly et al. 1997). competition 18 18 Task Eighteen Until recently, the support needs of frail older people in Sweden have been met primarily by the state, with there being little expectation that the family would provide care. This situation iis now s changing as increasing emphasis is being placed on the role of the family. placed 19 19 Task Nineteen Irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa is in most Irrigation Saharan cases performed using a rope and bucket to raise and distribute water from a shallow open well. While this _______________ has the advantage of being inexpensive, its low capacity and labor-iintensive nature is decidedly a labor ntensive disadvantage. disadvantage. method/approach method/approach 20 20 Task Nineteen Motor vehicle deaths in the U.S. declined from nearly 60,000 in 1966 to just over 40,000 last year, even though Americans drive millions more miles now and millions more vehicles are on the road. The death rate, which was 7.6 deaths per 100 million miles in 1950, declined from 5.5 in 1966 to 1.6 last year. This _______________ can be attributed to the manufacture of safer vehicles, with features such as airbags and antilock brakes. antilock decrease/improvement decrease/improvement 21 21 Task Nineteen Haigney concludes from his study that Haigney concludes driving performance decreases when drivers use their cell phones. This ______________ is consistent with recent reviews of the literature on driving distractions. distractions. conclusion conclusion 22 22 Task Nineteen Although it seems that the construction of new roads and widening of existing roads should reduce traffic congestion, recent research has shown that these activities actually lead to increases in traffic. This _______________ is known as the “induced traffic” effect. phenomenon phenomenon 23 23 Task Nineteen In 1900 average life expectancy at birth was 47 years for individuals born in developed countries. In 1950 life expectancy was nearly 68. For newborns today life expectancy is about 77 years. This _______________, however, does not mean that humans are undergoing some physiological change. Rather, it is a result of advances in medicine and technology. advances trend trend 24 24 Task Twenty-two The discovery of fossil fuels has had a big had effect on the development of cities. The development use of the automobile has become the most important element supporting the most modern society. And, since a few decades ago, the finiteness of natural resources ago, has been a source of heated controversy. source The cities and their development will development certainly be affected. certainly 25 25 Task Twenty-two A greater focus on accessible public reater transportation has been one change in one current urban planning discussions. It iis s widely believed that there will be an effort widely that to redesign cities in order to promote the promote use of public transportation. use 26 26 Task Twenty-three There is considerable doubt whether this this solution will be effective. The initial The reaction to the report has not been the complimentary. In fact many observers In believe that collapse of the system is that imminent. 27 27 Positioning: Task 24 Choosing any writing style that you like Choosing Expressing enthusiasm and commitment Expressing This should be discouraged, although there are cases where it can be highly successful. are Writing in a formal academic style Writing Making broad generalizations Making Being cautious about generalizations Being 28 28 Using references to support your points Using Writing mainly from experience and personal knowledge knowledge Graduate students should refrain from overreliance on personal experience. personal Reevaluating the work of authorities in the field Reevaluating This should be done with balance. One should avoid an all-out attack. Always allow for “praise where an out praise praise is due.” praise Showing an awareness of the “hot” iissues in ssues your field your 29 29 General-Specific texts Writing Definitions Ideas, Arguments, and organizing your Ideas, writing writing Review of Relative Clauses 30 30 Writing General-Specific Texts A common structure in academic writing— common general-specific movement An overview of short and extended definitions definitions Definitions and generalizations can be used to begin a GS text used 31 31 General-specific texts Common in graduate student writing Common Comparatively simple Comparatively Often used as introductions for longer pieces of writing pieces They have a structure similar to an inverted triangle. They start out broadly, become more specific, and then end with a broad statement. broad 32 32 General statement General Detail in support of the general statement general More detailed More Broader statement Broader 33 33 General-specific texts General-specific texts usually begin with General specific one of the following: one a short or extended definition short a contrastive or comparative definition contrastive a generalization or a purpose statement generalization a statement of fact statement Do Task One. Do 34 34 Selling Cities could have been an answer to an essay question an the opening paragraph to a longer assignment the an assignment focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of this kind of economic activity disadvantages It began with a general statement, which happened to include a definition. happened General statements of fact can be useful starting points. points. 35 35 General statements general statements of fact general broad statements made about a topic broad In the last decade, tremendous strides have been made in the science and technology of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). organic Over the years interest in the economic benefits of meetings tourism has been growing. of 36 36 Support Some support or explanation should be offered after a general statement is made. after specific detail specific reference to earlier work reference Although Chinese has the greatest number of speakers, English is the most widely distributed language in the world today. The position derives from the fact that English is widely taught as a second language in schools and widely used in international communication. widely (generalization) 37 37 starting with a generalization In comparison to many of the world’s In better-known languages, English is better known relatively new. Indeed, the English of 600 years ago can be understood only by specialists. specialists. 38 38 starting with a definition English is a language that belongs to the West Germanic subgroup of the IndoWest European language family. It began its European history as a distinct tongue in England around 500 A.D. around 39 39 40 40 General statements 41 41 General statement The Internet handles the real-time media The time transmission requirement by introducing a new protocol known as the real-time new time transport protocol (RTP), which is built on top of the already-existing user diagram top existing protocol (UDP). protocol 42 42 General statement Network users are demanding better quality of service guarantees for their traffic, which cannot be achieved by means of per-flow QoS mechanisms due means flow QoS mechanisms to their lack of scalability. An answer to this challenge is an aggregate class-based this based traffic management framework, . . . traffic 43 43 General statement In the last few years, voice over IP (VoIP) applications have faced a huge increase in popularity, in particular . . . popularity, In many organizations connected to the Internet, very restrictive firewalls are commonly adopted by network managers in an effort to give a better security to the internal network . . . internal 44 44 General statement Application identification and classification have been the focus of recent related work. been Due to the huge popularity achieved by Skype in the last few years, analysis of the Skype protocol and characteristics have been the focus of recent related work. recent VoIP applications based on P2P networks have become very popular in recent years. The main causes of their success are . . . causes 45 45 General statement Location of faults in overhead power lines for the inspection-repair purpose has been for repair the subject of interest to researchers and utilities personnel for more than 50 years. utilities In this work, the new accurate algorithm for locating faults on a power transmission line with the use of . . . has been presented. presented. 46 46 Sugeno-type fuzzy control iis one of the most popular s Sugeno and promising research platforms in the model-based and based fuzzy control. Sugeno-type fuzzy control iis based on s Sugeno the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy system and the theoretic the (TS) research studies on the issue have been conducted actively by many fuzzy control theorists. actively Fuzzy control technique represents a means of Fuzzy represents collecting human knowledge and expertise. It has been It has applied to various industrial fields. Although the method has been practically successful, it has proved method has extremely difficult to develop a general analysis and design theory for conventional fuzzy control systems. . . . systems. T-S fuzzy control system iis one of the most popular s and promising research platforms in the model-based and based fuzzy control. A general class of nonlinear systems can be represented by the T-S fuzzy model which is be fuzzy described by a set of fuzzy IF-THEN rules. . . . described 47 47 Definitions A definition sets the boundaries for a word’s definition meaning. meaning. Terms can have various meanings depending on the context. context. e.g., particularly cold, tone e.g., full-sentence definitions full definition is incorporated within sentence definition short, parenthetical additions to a sentence short, e.g., in textbooks e.g., 48 48 Extent of a definition purpose of the paper purpose level of familiarity of audience level extent to which there is an agreed upon definition of the concept You may begin to recognize definitions as you read material in your own fields. you 49 49 Common ways to define in AW short definitions short lexical or phrasal lexical placed within parentheses or commas placed e.g., i.e., known as, defined as, called e.g., sentence definitions sentence brief, like a dictionary definition brief, extended definitions extended longer and more detailed longer 50 50 Defining and Naming name name This new species was named Ascochyta named mycoparasitica. denote (restricted to notations) denote Any rotational velocity is usually denoted by f. denoted by Any vector in this paper will be denoted by a bold denoted by letter. letter. call (for introducing new information) new This new method is called activity-based costing, or called based ABC. ABC. The configuration in Fig. 15 may be called a twocalled dimensional corner reflector. 51 51 Defining and Naming known as known refer (for terminological explanations) refer defined as (widely used, safe option) defined For the purposes of this study, fast food is defined as food sold by a franchised restaurant defined as chain offering both dining and take-out facilities chain out with no “table” service (e.g., McDonald’s). One important product attribute is perceived product sophistication, which I define as the define as degree to which a product exhibits the latest technological advances. technological 52 52 general statement/definition The control consists of two components—the The the fuzzy-based component and the augmented fuzzy based component. The fuzzy-based component uses a component. based fuzzy logic controller to maintain . . . . fuzzy Under the fuzzy-based component, the allocated Under based bandwidth Ck iis adjusted at time instant tk, k=0, s =0, 1, 2, 3, . . ., where Ck is held constant over (tk, tk +1). The length of is called the control time +1). interval, which need not be a fixed constant. interval, 53 53 general statement/definition Fuzzy control consists of three main steps—fuzzification, iinference, and nference, steps defuzzification. In the fuzzification step, a defuzzification In fuzzification step, real number representing a feedback value is converted to linguistic values, . . . value Fuzzification iis the process of translating Fuzzification s real number inputs of each feedback variable. . . . variable. 54 54 general statement/definition Among the P2P VoIP applications that adopt the strategy of . . ., Skype iis of Skype s particular importance due to its huge popularity. Skype is a very popular VoIP application with a propriety closed-source application source protocol and encrypted end-to-end traffic. protocol end Skype can easily work in many different network environments . . . network 55 55 general statement/definition In order to present our results, we use ROC curves. ROC iis the acronym for ROC s receiver operating characteristic, a graphical representation of the efficiency measured for a given binary classifier. The ROC curve of a detection system shows . . . shows 56 56 The LMS controller iis a model-free controller s The developed in the context of statistical signal developed processing, as shown in Fig. 1. The adaptive processing as LMS BW controller predicts currently available LMS predicts BW solely based on output observations e(k). It e(k It treats the entire Internet as one massive treats Internet protocol (IP) cloud, with the sender and receiver as well-defined respective entry and exit receiver defined points. . . . points. 57 57 OpenMP iis an Application Program OpenMP s Application Interface (API), which was defined by a defined Interface which group of computer hardware and software vendors. The API iis a collection of s vendors The compiler directives, library routines and environment and is commonly used to enable compilers for making multienable threaded coding simpler. 58 58 Formal sentence definitions The term being defined is first assigned to a class or group to which it belongs and then distinguished from other terms in the class. class. The class word is a superordinate—a superordinate category word one level of generality above the term. above technique, method, process, device, system technique, 59 59 Formal sentence definitions Dental erosion is defined as a progressive loss of progressive hard dental tissues by a chemical process without bacterial action. without Dentists define dental erosion as a progressive dental loss of hard dental tissues by a chemical process called bacterial action. called highlights dentists (or a particular group using the definition) definition) undesirable undesirable 60 60 This variant of the efficiency wage hypothesis is known as the shirking model. The shirking model is a variant of the efficiency wage hypothesis. efficiency 61 61 Dalle de verre, commonly referred to as Dalle de verre commonly faceted glass, is a thick, modern cast glass, faceted which is used in concrete-set windows. which Dalle de verre, a kind of faceted glass, is a Dalle de verre kind thick, modern cast glass which is used in concrete-set windows. concrete 62 62 In the three sentences above, the activeIn form definitions come across as being form more generally accepted definitions in the field. field. 63 63 Formal sentence definitions A sole proprietorship is a business which is which owned and operated by one individual for personal profit. personal A partnership is a business which is owned which by two or more individuals for personal profit. profit 64 64 Formal sentence definitions A star is a celestial body that shines by that itself and whose source of energy is nuclear fusion occurring in its core. nuclear A comet is a celestial body of small mass of which consists mainly of gases and moves in an elliptical path under the influence of the sun’s gravity. the 65 65 Formal sentence definitions Annealing iis a metalworking process in which a s material is subjected to elevated temperatures for a period of time to cause structural or electrical changes in its properties. electrical Wielding iis a metalworking process in which s separate pieces of metal are joined together by means of heat to form a continuous metallic bond. bond 66 66 Formal sentence definitions Kava is a Pacific shrub whose dried whose rhizome and roots can be ground, grated, and steeped in water to produce a nonand alcoholic drink. Hybrid excited machine iis a motor or s generator, which contains permanent magnets and field windings on its rotor. magnets 67 67 Grammar of definitions A [term defined] iis a [class] [wh-] s [term A disinfectant is an agent capable of destroying diseasean causing microorganisms. any representative of this term will fit in the assigned class any A disinfectant is the agent capable of destroying the agent disease-causing microorganisms. disease other previously-mentioned agents are not capable . . . other Phonetics is the study of speech sounds. the Do Task Seven. Do 68 68 category: a group that shares some significant characteristics characteristics Each of our students falls into one of three categories. Each component: a part which combines with other parts to crate something bigger crate Milk is an essential component of any young child’s diet. Milk existence: the fact that something or someone is or exists exists The existence of ‘dark matter’ iin the universe was first proposed n in 1933. in feature: typical part or quality feature: Effective use of metaphor is a feature of the poet’s style. Effective 69 69 hierarchy: system in which people or things are arranged according to their importance or power according Humans can be described as being at the top of a hierarchy with amoebas on the bottom level. amoebas nature: type or main characteristic of something nature: The nature of her work means that she is under a lot of stress. The structure: the way in which the parts of a system are arranged arranged In this unit we shall be looking at the structure of the heart. In type: group with similar characteristics, a smaller division of a larger set division The lion is one type of large cat. The 70 70 There is an enormous variety/diversity of living things (or organisms). things To help study them, biologists have devised ways of naming and classifying them according to their similarities and differences. to The system most scientists use puts each living thing into seven groups organized from most general to most specific. general 71 71 Therefore, each species belongs to a genus. Therefore, Each genus belongs to a family. Each Each family belongs to an order, etc. Each Species are the smallest groups. Species A species consists of all the animals of the same type who are able to breed and produce young of the same kind. of Each species is distinct from all other species. Each Biologists allocate all organisms to a position in this system. this 72 72 When categorizing people, it is often necessary to take age, gender, social class, occupation, marital status, and ethnic backgrounds into account. account. It may also be appropriate to consider the urban-rural dimension. urban rural Age, for example, is important in that different generations tend to have different attitudes and other characteristics. other 73 73 Social class can be described in different ways. Social The term blue collar may be used to mean working class. working White collar denotes middle class. White The categories of student, homemaker, and senior citizen, as well as types of employment are subsumed under the heading of occupation or occupational background/status. or 74 74 It is hard to _______________ between these two _______________ plants. They hardly _______________ at all. _______________ The professor persuaded the university to _______________ more resources into his department. department. There are some magnificent _______________ passages in the writer’s later novels. passages In your essay comment on the _______________ and the _______________ between the two poems. between 75 75 It is difficult to categorize human emotions as categorize human we know little about their basic characteristics. characteristics Sensation and action can both be included included under the term behavior. Linguists allocate all languages to a place in allocate all the system of language families, based on their grammars and other key aspects. key The atmosphere of the planet consists of consists of different gases. different City and country people often differ in their City people political attitudes. Whether one is married or single is also a relevant factor. single 76 76 Deletion and when to delete A theater is a building specifically designed for dramatic performances. designed A theater is a building that is specifically specifically designed for dramatic performances. designed rel pron + passive verb rel 77 77 When to delete rel pron + to be + prep rel prep rel pron + to be + ADJ-able rel ADJ In dentistry, enamel is a hard, white inorganic material that is on the crown of a tooth. A robot is a multiprogrammable device which is multiprogrammable device capable of performing the work of a human. 78 78 Changing word form rel pron + has rel has with with A parliament is a national governing body which has the highest level of legislative the power within a state. power A parliament is a national governing body with the highest level of legislative power the within a state. within 79 79 Changing word form rel pron + active verb (V-ing) rel A moon is a natural satellite which orbits around a planet. A moon is a natural satellite orbiting around a planet. 80 80 Modal auxiliary In human resource management, a shock is a sudden and unexpected event that may cause employees to think about how cause the event will affect their jobs. the 81 81 In Sentences 6 and 9, the relative clause presents or describes a function of the subject. subject. There is a process, not a constant state. There The verbs cause and speed up are related and are to the process, not to a final state. to 82 82 If the relative pronoun is preceded by a preposition, which must be used. which This is common in formal academic writing. This These clauses cannot be reduced. These A foundation is a base on which a foundation structure can be built. structure 83 83 whereby whereby by which by by means of which by through which through 84 84 A microscope is an object . . . microscope A microscope is an instrument . . . microscope A vowel is a sound . . . vowel A vowel is a speech sound . . . vowel 85 85 Formal vs. less academic A solar cell is a device that converts the energy that of sunlight into electric energy. of A solar cell is something that changes sunlight that into electricity. into In tissue engineering, a scaffold is a structure onto which cells can be seeded and grown. In tissue engineering, a scaffold is something that cells can be seeded and grown on. 86 86 Circular definitions Erosion is a process during which the surface of the earth erodes. Erosion is a process during which the surface of the earth is degraded by the effects of the atmosphere, weather, and human activity. atmosphere, The four-wheel Antilock Braking System (ABS) iis s The wheel a braking system that helps provide straight, braking helps more controlled stops during braking, while helping the driver maintain steering control under most road and weather conditions. under 87 87 Avoid using when and where iin Avoid when and where n definitions definitions Pollution is when the environment the becomes contaminated as a result of human activity. human Pollution is a form of environmental contamination resulting from human activity. activity. The Renaissance was a time when . . . 88 88 Avoid using when and where iin Avoid when and where n definitions definitions A fault is where there is a fracture in the earth’s crust and the rock on one side of the fracture moves in relation to the rock on the other side. moves A fault is a fracture in the Earth’s crust in which fault crust the rock on one side of the fracture moves in relation to the rock on the other side. relation Antarctica is a place where . . . 89 89 Super critical fluid is a physical station between gas phase and fluid phase when its temperature and pressure are over the its temperature critical point. critical Mineralocorticoid receptor is a protein Mineralocorticoid receptor binding to hormones that regulates water balance in animals. balance 90 90 We follow Basu (1997), and interprets Basu (1997), conservatism as resulting in earnings reflecting “bad news” more quickly than more “good news.” When a company adopts a more conservative accounting policy, the firm will tend to record probable losses immediately. However probable revenues will not be recorded until such revenues happen. happen. 91 91 Task Ten Choose a word or phrase that assigns at least half of the following terms of phases to a precise class. class. a consonant consonant an ellipse an mitosis mitosis neon neon a composite composite a semiconductor semiconductor thermal toughening oxidation cancer privatization intervention (one of your own) 92 92 Extended definitions to demonstrate knowledge of a concept fully. to usually begins with a general, one-sentence usually sentence definition. definition. becomes more specific as additional details are provided. provided. may need to focus on such aspects as components, types, application, history, or examples. examples. 93 93 Process analysis An extended definition may also include information regarding operating principles or causes and effects (process analysis). or It may also include information about many other features, such as rarity and cost. cost. Problems, exceptions, and future predictions can also be discussed. predictions 94 94 Competing definitions Sometimes a definition of a term or concept is not fixed. concept There may be competing perspectives. There A good strategy is to acknowledge some of the different definitions. of But make clear to your reader the definitions that you will adopt. definitions 95 95 Lack of agreement Just what the term means and how it . . . remain unclear. remain There is a wide diversity in the use of this term in clinical and epidemiological studies, leading to difficulties in comparing research outcomes. research It seems there is little agreement on the definitions of this concept among researchers. researchers. 96 96 Skeletal phrases While debate exists regarding a precise definition of . . ., the stance adopted in this paper is that … For the purposes of this paper, . . . refers to/is defined as/is considered to be . . . defined Here we define . . . as . . . Here In this paper I have adopted [author’s] In s] definition of . . . definition This paper follows [author’s] definition of . . . This Do Task Seventeen. Do 97 97 Contrastive definitions to display knowledge about two (or more) related terms related while, whereas in contrast, however, on the other hand, conversely conversely unlike (+ noun) unlike 98 98 Contrastive definitions Read the passage on page 75. Read The two terms are presented independently. independently. The former deals with . . ., while the latter is concerned with . . . concerned 99 99 Comparative definitions display knowledge of the complexities surrounding key terms in one’s field of study. surrounding typically occur in introductory sections. typically Two approaches: Two present a historical account of how a concept has changed over time. has present an overview of how various experts today view a concept differently. today 100 100 Fragment Some basic LED driving circuits, together with AC-DC converters. with 101 101 There are many LED crystal grains are packaged into the same base to form a single chip. single That is to say, one LED chip is composed of many LED crystalline grains, i.e., many LEDs. LEDs 102 102 LED driving circuits mentioned in the literature need AC-DC converters or DC-DC converters, need DC and hence large inductors and large electrolytic capacitors are indispensable, thereby causing the size and weight of the equipment to be increased. increased. . . . thereby increasing the size and weight of the equipment. the 103 103 The power devices, MOSFET, in general, The the energy stored in parasitic capacitance can not be regenerated and therefore the MOSFET voltage is still higher before turning switch on and the voltage and and current product produce a large switching loss. loss 104 104 ZVS uses resonant elements to discharge the energy, which stored in parasitic which capacitance of the MOSFET. capacitance . . ., which is stored in parasitic stored capacitance of the MOSFET. capacitance 105 105 For this behavior the voltage and the For this current product closed to zero, it can to can improve the performance of hard switching converters. switching 106 106 Regarding the sun as the energy is the solar energy. solar The energy originating from the sun is solar energy. solar 107 107 Their operational characteristics depend on the incident sun light intensity, surface on temperature, ambient temperature, and current flow varies. 108 108 Its character curve will be change and the relative maximum power point will be changed too. changed Its character curve, as well as the relative maximum power point, will be changed. 109 109 Therefore we must apply a suitable control method that photovoltaic solar photovoltaic panels operation in the best operating point. point. 110 110 A BLDC motor has permanent magnets which rotate and a fixed armature. A BLDC motor has permanent rotating magnets and a fixed armature. 111 111 Limitations of brushed DC motors overcome by BLDC motors include . . . BLDC motors can overcome the limitations of brushed DC motors, including . . . including 112 112 113 113 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2011 for the course EECS 000 taught by Professor Hero during the Spring '06 term at National Taipei University.

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