Week03 Writing features

Week03 Writing features - Features of Academic Writing And...

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Unformatted text preview: Features of Academic Writing And What is Technical Writing 1 Why write a research report? A research report is a paper written by an investigator to describe a research study that he or she has completed. that The purpose of the report is to explain to others in the field what the objectives, methods, and findings of the study were. methods, 2 Research report Research reports are designed around a research question. question. As a possible answer to the research question, the researcher formulates a hypothesis and then designs the study in such a way as to reject or support the hypothesis. hypothesis. Such studies are usually quantitative. They deal with numerical data obtained in carrying out the study. numerical These data are usually treated with one or more statistical tests to determine how seriously the results statistical to should be taken. should 3 Research report The reports written to describe these different kinds of studies also have much in common: in A report includes descriptions of the purpose, method, and results of the study. purpose, Complete results are usually presented in tables and graphs. tables 4 Research report Such a report contains references to other published works in the same area of study. published A bibliography (a list of references) listing these works, in always included at the end of the report. of A brief summary or an abstract covering the most important information in the report is usually attached. report 5 An Approach to Academic Writing Unit One Unit An overview of academic writing characteristics characteristics 6 Typical sections of a research Typical report report ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULTS DISCUSSION 7 Abstract Abstract Introduction Introduction Issues Issues (Experiment) (Experiment) Results/Discussion Results/Discussion Conclusion Conclusion References References 8 Considerations in academic writing Audience Audience Purpose Purpose Organization Organization Style: formal style Style: Flow: connectors Flow: Presentation Presentation 9 Considerations Top-down approach Top from basic to specifics from If basic strategy is seriously misjudged, no amount of minor editing will save it. amount Writing is more than just the production of correct sentences. correct 10 10 Audience Reader? Reviewer? Professor? Reader? Understanding of audience’s expectations and and prior knowledge TASK: TASK: Do Task One on Handout. Do Compare: Compare: Background knowledge presumed Background Sentence complexity Sentence Use of technical terms Use 11 11 Purpose and strategy A<W, instructional (e.g., textbook) A<W, A>W, display familiarity, expertise, and intelligence (e.g., term papers) intelligence 12 12 Organization How is information presented to readers? How There are patterns. There Example: letters Example: Good news letter Good Acknowledgement Welcoming Close Welcoming Good news Administrative details Do Task Four: Label the parts of the letter. Do Acknowledgement Preparation “buffer statement” Bad News “make amends” Close Close 13 13 Bad-news letter Bad news need a preparatory “buffer” statement. Closing sentence: to “make amends” because the writer is worried about the because likely reaction of Mr. Lee. likely Academic writing also employs a variety of organizational patterns. organizational 14 14 Problem-solution (Hoey 1983) Problem-solution pattern: Problem Description of a situation Description Identification of a problem Identification Description of a solution Description Evaluation of the solution Evaluation 15 15 Other ways of organizing Other information information There are many ways of organizing information in different sections of a paper. information Task: check Intro of RP, how is Introduction organized? Introduction 16 16 New Approaches to Relaxed New Quadratic Stability Condition of Fuzzy Control Systems Fuzzy I. Introduction I. II. Preliminaries II. A. Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Control System . . . A. III. Description of New Stability Conditions III. A. Problem statement A. B. New Stability Condition (A) B. C. New Stability Condition (B) C. IV. Design Example and Computer Simulation IV. V. Conclusion V. 17 17 A Parallel Simulated Annealing Parallel Approach Floorplanning in VLSI Floorplanning 1. Introduction 1. 2. Overview of the Published Researches 2. 3. Parallel Simulated Annealing with FFA 3. 4. Experimental Results 4. 5. Conclusion 5. 18 18 A New Fair Weighted Fair Queueing New Queueing Scheduling Algorithm in Scheduling Differentiated Services Network Differentiated Summary Summary 1. Introduction 1. 2. FWFQ 2. 3. Experimental Model 3. 4. Results and Discussions 4. 5. Conclusion 5. References References 19 19 Style Appropriate (for message; for audience; formality) formality) Consistent Consistent What is academic or not? Check your RP. What Academic word list Academic Contractions Contractions Starting sentences with but but Imperatives (Consider the case of …) I Always choose the more formal alternative. Always 20 20 Academic Word List http://www.uefap.com/vocab/vocfram.htm http://www.uefap.com/vocab/vocfram.htm 570 headwords 570 not restricted to a specific field of study not The words are useful for learners studying in disciplines as varied as literature, science, health, business, and law. Ten sublists: sublists http://www.sccoe.k12.ca.us/depts/ell/docs/Kinse http://www.sccoe.k12.ca.us/depts/ell/docs/Kinse lla_Vocabulary_Resources/1AWLbyfrequency.doc 21 21 Verbs: choose the more formal Verbs: alternative alternative Informal: V + prep Informal: More formal: single verbs (verbs with Latinate origins) Latinate come up with come offer offer 22 22 Just the Word: Just http://193.133.140.102/JustTheWord/ Corpus Concordance: http://www.lextutor.ca/concordancers/conc ord_e.html British National Corpus: http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/ I WILL: http://research.iwillnow.org/project/bncrce/ 23 23 Language Focus Avoid contractions. Avoid Cannot is one word. Cannot Use formal negative forms. Use Use fewer negative forms. Use not . . . any no no not . . . much little little not . . . many few few This problem doesn’t have many viable solutions. This have This problem has few viable solutions. This 24 24 Limit “run-on” expressions. Etc., and so forth Etc., These semiconductors can be used in robots, CD players, etc. players, These semiconductors can be used in robots, CD players, and other electronic devices. players, Avoid using you. you Use passive. Use You can see the results in Table 1. You The results can be seen in Table 1. The You can classify individuals as Morning Types, Evening Types, or Neither Types. Evening 25 25 Language Focus Use indirect questions. Use What can be done to lower costs? What It is necessary to consider how costs may be lowered. lowered. We now need to consider how costs may be lowered. lowered. Place adverbs before the verbs. Place Place modifiers right next to the words that they describe. describe. Do not place adverbs at the start or end of the sentence. sentence. 26 26 Do not split infinitives. Do Only to avoid awkwardness and ambiguity. Only Neural networks have the ability to correctly classify new correctly classify patterns correctly. correctly Use only as many words as needed. Use It may be difficult to make a decision about the method that we should use. should Choosing the proper method may be difficult. Choosing There are some inorganic materials that can be used by bioengineers in the process of tissue engineering that have been bioengineers shown to be very promising. Some inorganic materials used in tissue engineering have shown great promise. shown 27 27 Flow Enable your reader to follow you. Enable Clear connection of ideas Clear 28 28 Linking words and phrases Complete clause, Subordinators + dependent clause dependent although although even though even because because since since while while whereas whereas 29 29 Linking words and phrases Sentence; connector, sentence. Sentence; connector, Sentence. Connector, sentence. Sentence. Connector, furthermore, in addition, moreover furthermore, despite the fact, however, nevertheless despite therefore, as a result, consequently, hence, thus therefore, in other words, that is in in contrast, however, on the other hand, conversely in for example, for instance for on the contrary, as a matter of fact, in fact on SKIP SKIP 30 30 on the contrary; in contrast How would you translate the following Chinese sentence into English? sentence (i) 那間公司的電腦系統很先進; 相反地, 我們的電腦系統 那間公司的電腦系統很先進 相反地 我們的電腦系統 則很落後。 What English connectives/conjunctions would you use to show the contrast expressed in (i)? Would you use on the contrary and say something like on and (ii)? (ii)? (ii) The computer system of that company is very advanced. On the contrary, ours is very backward. advanced. Is sentence (ii) correct? 31 31 那間公司的電腦系統很先進; 相反地, 相反地 我們的電腦系統則很落後。 我們的電腦系統則很落後。 So we should say So (iii) √ The computer system of that company is very The advanced. In contrast, ours is very backward. In OR OR (iv) √ The computer system of that company is very The advanced. By contrast, ours is very backward. By OR OR (v) √ The computer system of that company is very The advanced, but ours is very backward. but 32 32 Then, when should we use the Then, connective on the contrary? on Correct Usage Correct We use “on the contrary” when we have just when said or implied that something is not true, something and are going to say that the opposite is true the (Collins Cobuild dictionary, 1995). (Collins Cobuild dictionary, For example, For (vi) The assignment is not difficult. On the contrary, it is very easy. is (vii) I don’t think the marking scheme is lenient; on (vii) think the contrary, it is very strict. the 33 33 那間公司的電腦系統很先進; 相反地, 相反地 我們的電腦系統則很落後。 我們的電腦系統則很落後。 Now, let’s llook at sentence (ii) again and see why the ook Now, connective is wrong. (ii) The computer system of that company is very advanced. On the contrary, ours is very backward. advanced. “On the contrary” iis NOT used to compare s things/people/situations and say that they are different things/people/situations and from each other. from (viii) John is always late. On the contrary, Mary is always punctual. always (ix) There are 40 students in this class; on the contrary, there are 35 students in that class. there (x) I have two brothers. On the contrary, Jane has four. have 34 34 Can you fill in the blanks using an Can appropriate connective? appropriate Old people are slow in learning. ________, young people are often very quick in absorbing information. people The economy will not improve this year. ________, it is likely to get worse. is Our firm has no objections to employing older people. ________, applications from older people over 50 will be welcome. be Working from home is comfortable and convenient. ________, traveling every day to an office is tiring and expensive. expensive. 35 35 Can you fill in the blanks using an Can appropriate connective? appropriate 香港的居住環境很差; 相反地, 加拿大的環 香港的居住環境很差 相反地 加拿大的環 境則很理想。 這間房子一點也不昂貴; 相反地, 我覺得它 這間房子一點也不昂貴 相反地 我覺得它 很便宜。 我並不忙碌; 相反地, 我弟弟則常常超時工 我並不忙碌 相反地 我弟弟則常常超時工 作。 他從不批評你; 相反地, 他常常稱讚你。 他從不批評你 相反地 他常常稱讚你。 36 36 Phrase linkers Linker + noun phrase in addition to in despite, in spite of despite, because of, due to, as a result of because unlike unlike . . .; however, fish swim. .; . . .; fish, however, swim. .; . . .; fish swim, however. .; 37 37 Punctuations period period complete sentence. complete semi-colon semi complete sentence; complete sentence. complete complete sentence; connector, complete sentence. complete comma comma complete sentence, subordinator + dependent clause. complete complete sentence; connector, complete sentence. complete 38 38 this / these + Noun enables a writer to communicate to the reader how the previous sentence is being interpreted. interpreted. The students said they wanted more tests. The This request surprised the authorities. This This statement surprised the authorities. This This demand surprised the authorities. This This ultimatum surprised the authorities. This 39 39 this / these + Noun ESL lecturers know that students need to understand the differences between formal and informal language. However, this understanding cannot usually be acquired quickly. In recent years, the number of students applying to Ph.D. programs has increased steadily, while the number of places available has remained constant. This situation has has resulted in intense competition for admission. resulted 40 40 Summary words may be expanded Summary into phrases. into to add clarity to In the past, flood impact assessments have focused primarily on the economic losses resulting from a flood. Now, however, emphasis is also being placed on potential environmental benefits. benefits. This expansion iin assessment focus with n This regard to flooding will result in a more complete regard will picture of the gains and losses from a flood. picture 41 41 Task Twenty Many students have difficulty choosing between this and it when they write. They this and it when tend to overuse it, which often leads to it which confusion. confusion. It refers to the subject (the topic). It This refers to the idea. This 42 42 Presentation Spelling Spelling homophones homophones Basic grammar errors Basic Subject-verb agreement Subject Articles Articles Verb forms (tenses) Verb Overall format Overall Clear paragraphs Clear Line spacing Line Standard fonts and font sizes Standard Check style sheet of your journal. 43 43 Typical sections of a research Typical report report ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULTS DISCUSSION 44 44 45 45 Conjunctions and connectors Many types of meaning relationships can exist within one sentence or from one sentence to another. Words or phrases that express these relationships are called connectors. connectors 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 50 50 51 51 52 52 53 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 60 61 61 62 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 66 66 67 67 68 68 69 69 70 70 71 71 72 72 73 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 ...
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