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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 - Worldwide Accounting Diversity and International Standards CHAPTER 11 WORLDWIDE ACCOUNTING DIVERSITY AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS Chapter Outline I. Accounting and financial reporting rules differ across countries. There are a variety of factors influencing a countrys accounting system. A. Legal systemprimarily relates to how accounting principles are established; code law countries generally having legislated accounting principles and common law countries having principles established by non-legislative means. B. Taxationfinancial statements serve as the basis for taxation in many countries. In those countries with a close linkage between accounting and taxation, accounting practice tends to be more conservative so as to reduce the amount of income subject to taxation. C. Financing systemwhere shareholders are a major provider of financing, the demand for information made available outside the company becomes greater. In those countries in which family members, banks, and the government are the major providers of business finance, there tends to be less demand for public accountability and information disclosure. D. Inflationhas caused some countries, especially in Latin America, to develop accounting principles in which traditional historical cost accounting is abandoned in favor of inflation adjusted figures. E. Political and economic tiescan explain the usage of a British style of accounting throughout most of the former British Empire. They also help to explain similarities between the U.S. and Canada, and increasingly, the U.S. and Mexico. F. Cultureaffects a countrys accounting system in two ways: (1) through its influence on a countrys institutions, such as its legal system and system of financing, and (2) through its influence on the accounting values shared by members of the accounting sub-culture. II. Nobes developed a general model of the reasons for international differences in financial reporting that has only two explanatory factors: (1) national culture, including institutional structures, and (2) the nature of a countrys financing system. A. A self-sufficient Type I culture will have a strong equity-outsider financing system which results in a Class A accounting system oriented toward providing information for outside shareholders. B. A self-sufficient Type II culture will have a weak equity-outsider financing system which results in a Class B accounting system oriented toward protecting creditors and providing a basis for taxation. C. Countries dominated by a country with a Type I culture will use a Class A accounting system even though they do not have strong equity-outsider financing systems....
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- Spring '11