History 10 Terms - 1) Pumpkin Papers Definition: The...

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1) Pumpkin Papers Definition: The Pumpkin Papers were 65 pages of retyped secret State Department documents, 5 strips of microfilm, and 4 notes written by Alger Hiss, that were used as evidence to try and convict Alger Hiss of espionage and connect him to the “Ware group”, a communist underground society. They were referred to as the “Pumpkin Papers” due to the fact that for a while they were hidden in a hollowed-out pumpkin. Whittaker Chambers, a former member of the “Ware group”, was called to testify before HUAC about his involvement with the “Ware group” as well as give away the names of other members. Alger Hiss was one of the names he mentioned. When Hiss denied that he had ever been a Communist and filled a libel suit against Chambers, Chambers had no choice but to produce the Pumpkin Papers which eventually lead to Hiss spending 5 years in jail for perjury. Category: Political Time Period / Date: October 8, 1948 during the beginning of the Red Scare. Significance in History: The significance of the Pumpkin Papers was their tie to the Red Scare and McCarthyism. Many conservatives viewed the Hiss case as emblematic of what they saw as Democrats’ laxity towards the danger of communist infiltration and influence in the State Department. Moreover. This case led to President Truman enacting Executive Order 9835 which established the first general loyalty program in the United States. Conclusion: The Pumpkin Papers lead to Albert Hiss spending 5 years behind bars for perjury because he had claimed before a grand jury that he had never given any documents to Chambers and testified that he hadn’t seen Chambers after mid 1936. The papers were sufficient evidence to have Hiss convicted of espionage but the statute of limitations prevented it. "Whittaker Chambers." Wikipedia. 14 May 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whittaker_Chambers#Harold_Ware “The Pumpkin Papers: Key Evidence in the Alger Hiss Trials” Law.umkc.edu. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/pumpkinp.html 2) Red Emma Definition: Red Emma, or Emma Goldman, was an anarchist who played a vital role in the development of “anarchist political philosophy” in North American and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century. She spent her life agitating values such as social justice for working people, the abolition of capitalism, the freedom of spiritual and intellectual expression, free love and an end to war, racism, religious differences, and ethnocentrism. She also founded the anarchist journal Mother Earth as well as partook in an assassination attempt on Henry Clay Frick and participated in the anarchist revolution in Spain after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. By the 1890s, Goldman won a reputation as “Red Emma”, perhaps the most notorious radical lecturer in the United States. Category:
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This note was uploaded on 10/10/2011 for the course PHIL 160 taught by Professor Coakley during the Spring '11 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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History 10 Terms - 1) Pumpkin Papers Definition: The...

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